PHP with MySQL Essential Training
Illustration by Don Barnett

Creating a database table


PHP with MySQL Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

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Video: Creating a database table

Now that we've created our first database we're ready to add our first table to that database. And to do that we're going to need to learn just a little bit more MySQL. The first is Show Tables. That's just going to show us all of the tables on the current database that we're using. Remember that we had show databases to show us the list of all the databases? Well it makes sense that show tables will show us all the tables. Well, we're not going to have any tables there to start with. We're going to need to create one and we're going to do that with the create table command. So create table, followed by the name of our table, followed by paranthesis, we're going to put the table definitions.
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 1h 3m
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Installing to Yosemite NEW
      8m 13s
    5. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    6. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    7. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    8. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    9. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    10. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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PHP with MySQL Essential Training from
14h 24m Beginner Jun 04, 2013 Updated May 20, 2015

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

PHP is a popular, reliable programming language at the foundation of many smart, data-driven websites. This comprehensive course from Kevin Skoglund helps developers learn the basics of PHP (including variables, logical expressions, loops, and functions), understand how to connect PHP to a MySQL database, and gain experience developing a complete web application with site navigation, form validation, and a password-protected admin area. Kevin also covers the basic CRUD routines for updating a database, debugging techniques, and usable user interfaces. Along the way, he provides practical advice, offers examples of best practices, and demonstrates refactoring techniques to improve existing code.

Topics include:
  • What is PHP?
  • Installing and configuring PHP and MySQL
  • Exploring data types
  • Controlling code with logical expressions and loops
  • Using PHP's built-in functions
  • Writing custom functions
  • Building dynamic webpages
  • Working with forms and form data
  • Using cookies and sessions to store data
  • Connecting to MySQL with PHP
  • Creating and editing database records
  • Building a content management system
  • Adding user authentication
Kevin Skoglund

Creating a database table

Now that we've created our first database we're ready to add our first table to that database. And to do that we're going to need to learn just a little bit more MySQL. The first is Show Tables. That's just going to show us all of the tables on the current database that we're using. Remember that we had show databases to show us the list of all the databases? Well it makes sense that show tables will show us all the tables. Well, we're not going to have any tables there to start with. We're going to need to create one and we're going to do that with the create table command. So create table, followed by the name of our table, followed by paranthesis, we're going to put the table definitions.

So that's going to be a list of all the columns that we have followed by definition for that column, then at the end we can put some options. Now the definitions can be complex, so we're not going to try to cover everything about them exhaustively, but I'm going to walk you through the basics of those. Once you've done a few of them you'll get the hang of it. And then the last ones we need to take a look at are just Show Columns From table_name. And that's going to just basically show us what the table looks like, show us all of those columns that we've just created. So that we make sure they look the way we think they do, and then of course, Drop Table, just like we had Drop Database followed by the table name. And that will remove the table, thats the reverse of creating it is dropping it, and that will lose all the data that was in that table, so use it wisely. Now that we have the basic idea of how to do it, what are we going to create? Well we're going to be creating a content management system for a fictional company called Widget Core.

And we'll have a number of pages of content and those pages are going to be group into subject areas such as about us, products, services. So, to begin with let's create a table that's going to hold those different subject areas. So what I'm thinking the the table is going to look like is that we're going to have a table called Subjects, that's what we'll be storing there. On almost every single table that you create in MySQL, the first thing you want to do is add a column for ID. ID is going to identify each row as a unique row. It's going to be a unique identifier, and it's going to allow us then to say, okay, we're talking about customer Number 27 or we're talking about customer Number 34.

We'll always be able to find that row in the database by its ID. So you almost always want to have that and then we are going to have menu name. And what I am thinking here is this is the name that would be displayed in the menu on the public side of the content management system. Now there will be a number of these subjects and we are going to want them to be sorted in an order I have chosen. So, I may also going to have a position field that will let us change the sort order of those subjects. An then last of all, visible, which would be a Boolean, true or false for whether this subject should be visible, to the public.

Whether it should be shown, in the subject navigation bar, at the top of our website. So those are the fields we're going to create. Let's go to MySQL and try creating them, an I'll show you how the data definitions work as well. So I'm still MySQL from my previous movie if you're not you'll want to come and start using MySQL. If your not inside Widget Corp you'll also want to make sure that use Widget_corp just to get yourself inside. And then once your in there you can Show Tables. And it comes back and tells us it's empty. There are none right now. So let's try creating our first.

so, the syntax is create table followed by the name of the table and then parentheses and then after that, we're going to have our definitions. I'm going to put two spaces here just so it's easier to read. The first one, remember, was going to be ID. And then we need to provide the definition for ID. Well, what we need to tell it here is what type of field it's going to be. It's going to be an integer field, so we're going to say it's INT. And then in parentheses, we can say how many integers can it be. I'm going to put in 11. That's a good standard size for an integer.

So an integer of size 11. That works out to something like ten billion numbers that it will hold. And then the next thing we want to say, is whether or not this field can be null. Is it possible to have nothing there? The alternative is to have an empty string there. So, we want to say that this cannot be null. It's not going to really be a problem cause it's always going to have an ID. and the reason why, is cause we're going to also going to set a special option on it. Called auto_increment and that means that we're automatically going to add an ID every time we create a new subject.

Every time we add a subject to the database it's going to get a new ID number. We don't have to tell it what ID it's going to be, MySQL will automatically add one for it. So if we had 47 customers, if we add a new customer, well the next customer gets ID number 48. It's a little bit like those ticket machines at the deli, where everybody just pulls off the next number for the next customer in line. MySQL just automatically assigns you a number and you get added to the database with that number. And then after that definition for that first line, I'm going to put a comma. And hit Return to go to the next line. Couple of spaces. The next one is going to be menu_name, and we're going to need to put its definition.

It's not an integer. It's going to be a string. A string in MySQL language is called a VARCHAR, a variable-length character. It might be five characters, might be ten characters, we don't know. We can also say how many it's limited to. And you can pick any number, 255 is a good one if it's going to be a lot of text. The system menu's going to be really small, 30 should be sufficient and then once again, can it be null or is it not null. And I'm going to say that it's not null but if for some reason we forget to provide the menu name here. It ought to put in an empty string rather than the actual value null. In general, I find working with not null a lot easier and a lot better. So I'm going to make all of these not null.

Put a comma at the end of that. We don't need auto increment or anything. That's something special just for the ID field. And then I'll hit return, space, position. And then this one is also going to be an integer, just like ID was. But we don't need to have 10 billion possibilities for what this can be. We can just limit it to being three. That's more than enough. The odds it will have more than 999 subjects is very slim. But it's a small amount to go ahead and allot to it, so it's fine. And then not null, comma. And then the last one is going to be visible.

And visible's going to be a Boolean. And we actually could assign it a Boolean type. But it's really just an alias for something called tiny int. Which is just a really small integer. And it just reserves it a very small amount of space. And I'm going to give it a size of one. Because it's either going to be true or false. And we can represent that with just a 0 or 1. So we just need one integer to do that. And then also not null. That means that by default, instead of being null, it's going to be false or 0. And then I'll put a comma here. And then the very last one is going to be the options. And the only option that we want to specify is the primary key parentheses ID.

And that's pretty standard. So you're almost always going to want to put that primary key ID. What we're telling it, is, if you want to know what you should index. If you want to know how to find records quickly, use the ID field. That's the field that's the important one. Doesn't have to be called ID. It can be called something else. But we're going to go ahead and specify it. If we hadn't specified it MySQL actually would have picked that first field on it's own. But it's better to go ahead and say it. And then we'll hit Return, close our parentheses, and put a semicolon at the end. So there's a lot of typing there. Pause the movie, you need to copy it all down.

When you're done, let's hit Return. And it comes back and says query okay. Did it work? Alright, well let's try Show Tables again. There it is, there's my table. Now, it doesn't tell me about it. To see information about it after you use my show columns from and then subjects. And there, that's how we can take a peek at the table that we just created. We'll be creating a few more tables later on, so we'll get a chance to revisit this. In truth, creating tables is something you don't do very often. You do it, kind of, at the beginning of the project, and then, for the most part when you're working with MySQL after that, you're really working on the CRUD.

The create, read and update, delete. Those are where you spend most of your time in MySQL. And that's what we're going to do in the next movie, is how to do CRUD in MySQL.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about PHP with MySQL Essential Training .

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Q: This course was revised on 6/4/2013. What changed?
A: The old version of this course was 6 years old and it was time for a complete revision, using PHP 5.4. (The tutorials will work with any version of PHP and covers any differences you might encounter). The author has also added updated installation instructions for Mac OS X Mountain Lion and Windows 8. The topics and end project are the same, but the code is slightly different. It also addresses frequently asked questions from the previous version.
Q: This course was updated on 5/20/2015. What changed?
A: We added one movie called "Changing the document root in Yosemite," which helps the Mac installation run more smoothly.
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