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PHP is a popular, reliable programming language at the foundation of many smart, data-driven websites. This comprehensive course from Kevin Skoglund helps developers learn the basics of PHP (including variables, logical expressions, loops, and functions), understand how to connect PHP to a MySQL database, and gain experience developing a complete web application with site navigation, form validation, and a password-protected admin area. Kevin also covers the basic CRUD routines for updating a database, debugging techniques, and usable user interfaces. Along the way, he provides practical advice, offers examples of best practices, and demonstrates refactoring techniques to improve existing code.
In this movie we are going to learn to change the Document Root that Apache is going to use. The document root is the place where we are going to locate the web files that Apache is going to be serving up when we make web requests. Apache has a default document root and that exists at Library/WebServer/Documents. So that's the root of your hard drive inside each of those directories, and that's the place where we could drop documents, right now. And we would be able to access them from our browser. That's where that it works file lives. We'll see that in just a moment.
But instead of doing that, we want to use our user document root. The first one is just a general location that all users of our Macintosh can see. Now, even if we're the only user, It's still a good practice to go ahead and locate our websites in our user directory. So we're going to need to create a folder for that, and that's going to be the Sites directory. The unit shortcut for that is just the tilda sign that says go to my user directory inside Sites. The full path for it is Users and then your name and then Sites. And that's where this folder is going to live.
This folder does not exist, righ now, in all likelihood, Apple used to provide it for us. It used to be on all Mac OS 10 installation. But, starting with 10.8, they stopped adding it. So, if you've upgraded from previous versions of Mac OS 10, you may still have it. It may be a folder that still existed and carried through the upgrade. If you've just installed 10.8 from scratch, then you probably don't have this folder, and you'll need to create it. And then, after we've created the folder, we'll have to tell Apache that it has permission to serve up files from that folder.
So we'll have to give it a little bit of a configuration in order to make that happen. Let's take a look now, so the first thing I want to do is I want you to see the existing page that's there. If we move around in Unix, and we can do that with the CD command for changing directories. We change directory to Library, and then Web Server, and then Documents. You don't need to do this, you can actually just watch me. I've now moved into that directory. If I type ls, it'll show me a listing what's in that directory and there's an index.html.en page. If we take a look at that page, cat index.html.en and that will output the contents of that file. So you can see it's just the simple html page that says it works, that's what's there by default.
That's what's in that directory, we can go ahead and keep using that directory and local host always points to that directory. But instead, to get to our user directory, what we want to do, go to the desktop here, I'm inside the Finder, I'll pick New Finder Window. I'm inside my user directory. And I'm just going to create a new folder inside here and call it Sites, capital S and plural, so Sites. Notice that it picked up this special icon that's built into Mac OS 10, because sites used to be a normal thing. It used to be there all the time.
So it still picked up that icon, even though Apple has decided to leave it out of the install by default. So this is now where I'm going to put all of my websites. So from now on, all of my code is going to go inside this sites directory inside here. In order to make that happen I need to give Apache some additional commands. So in order to do that I'm going to cd again but this time I'm going to go into Apache's configuration directory. And that's inside /etc/apache2 So there it is, insideetc/apache2 and then inside there, there's another directory called Users.
So that's where I'm going to go to and you should navigate there as well So you want to be in the same location. if you type PWD It should report back that that is your current working directory. That's where you are right now. If we do ls in that directory, there's nothing there listed for me. Now if it came back for you and it said that you had a configuration file, you might want to take a look at that configuration file and see what's there first. But since I don't have anything, I know I need to create this file. I'll do that using the sudo command, which we talked about earlier. Basically saying creative it with highest level access privileges.
When you use the nano text editor. Just type the word nano and that will open up a text editor to allow me to edit and then whatever your user name is, .conf. Now don't actually type user name, type your user name. It's gotta match whatever your directory is that you just created that folder in. So for me that's kevinskoglund.conf. And then it's going to ask me for my password. I'll type in my main installation password on the Mac. And now, it's says, alright, now what do you want to put into this file? And I've got some text that I can just Paste in here.
And the only thing I'll need to do is change username in this to be my username, kevinskoglund. Alright, so that's what you want to put in this file, this is a set of directions for Apache, saying that the directory users Kevin Skoglund Sites. Should have these following permissions applied to it. And these permissions are some basic, standard stuff Apache's saying Hey, Apache, allow access to the directory. You should serve up things from this directory, it's okay. So pause the movie if you need to Copy that down. Make sure that you copy it exactly right. Make sure that you got all the capitalization right, all the spacing right, because it's all important.
These are directions that we're giving to Apache. And then when you're done, we're going to hold Ctrl+X. You'll see that down at the bottom, it says Exit. It's going to say, do you want to save the changes here? And we're going to say Yes, we do. Just have a Y. It'll say do you want to call it the file name kevinskoglund.conf, and I do, so I'm just going to hit Return. And now I had to Save that file, cat kevinskoglund.conf, and you can see the file and see its contents there. So now we've given Apache the instructions. There are two more things we need to do. We need to change the permissions on this file to make sure that Apache has permission to read it.
So we're going to do that with sudo, and then chmod, space, 644, and then the name of the file. Once you do that, it will have changed the permissions, the ability for Apache to read and write the file, to be the correct thing we need. And the last thing is sudo apachectl restart, right, remember that. We just need to restart Apache so that it picks up that new configuration file. So now it should be working and we're ready to check it out in our browser but we don't have anything in that folder to actually serve up yet. So let's just real quickly create something in that folder. I'm going to cd into my user directory.
Remember the shortcut for that is that tilde sign. Followed by a slash and then in that folder is sights. So going into my sights directory now from the command line. That's the same place, if I type open the dot you'll that it pops open the sites directory. This is unix commands that I'm entering to allow you to see the difference. That's the directory I'm in. And I'm going to just do nano again. And let's create index.html. We'll just type hello from my user directory.
We'll do an exit again, Ctrl+X, followed by Yes to Save my changes. Return to accept index.html. You can now see the file appeared here. And let's go to Firefox. If we hit Return here, we still get the It works page. But if we now append to it, tilde and then your name. So tilde, kevinscoglin, is now going to go to my user directory and return what's in that directory. We've basically told Apache, in addition to your main default document root, also serve up this user root file. And now we're ready to be able to start putting our PHP files into this directory.
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