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Building the CMS database

From: PHP with MySQL Essential Training

Video: Building the CMS database

In this movie, we're going to set up the database tables that we'll need for our content management system. In addition to blueprinting the whole project, it's also very helpful to map out what our project's database tables are going to look like. This phase is called data modeling because we're thinking about what kind of data we'll have and how we'll store it and how it relates to each other. In our data model, we're going to have three tables. We're going to have subjects, we're going to have pages, then we're going to have our admins. So, for subjects, you can see that we have our ID. That's the primary key, the unique value for finding any subject.

Building the CMS database

In this movie, we're going to set up the database tables that we'll need for our content management system. In addition to blueprinting the whole project, it's also very helpful to map out what our project's database tables are going to look like. This phase is called data modeling because we're thinking about what kind of data we'll have and how we'll store it and how it relates to each other. In our data model, we're going to have three tables. We're going to have subjects, we're going to have pages, then we're going to have our admins. So, for subjects, you can see that we have our ID. That's the primary key, the unique value for finding any subject.

Then we'll have it's menu_name, the common name that the user will see, it's position, so that we can sort them in a certain order. And then a visible Boolean, that determines whether or not the subject is visible to the public. Then we our pages, which are almost exactly the same, except that they have a subject_id, which is a foreign key that relates it to subject. So subject has many pages and that subject_id is how we link those together. We talked about that when we talked about relational databases. And then pages also has a big block of content in it which is the page content. That's the content that's going to be up there that'll have paragraphs of text for the user to read.

And then our 3rd table is going to be admins which is going to have it's primary key, once again being id. And then the username that the admin would use to log in with and then hashed_password. And you could just call this password, but I'm calling it hashed_password just to make it clear that it's going to be encrypted. And we'll talk about that when we actually get to the section on user authentication. Now, you might want to scribble in more details than this. You might want to write in the type of SQL column that you're going to need for each one, or details about the relationships between the tables. Or maybe reminders to yourself about adding indexes on foreign keys.

The overall idea is just to have it all mapped out in front of you, just like you did for blueprinting the application. Because now, once again, it's all in front of us. We can examine it, we're not trying to hold it in our head. We can confront problems early on, figure out the solutions before we start developing. Now, we already created both the subjects table and the pages table back in chapter 13. If you don't have them already, you'll want to either jump back there to learn how, or load the SQL that's included with the exercise files, so that you'll have them. What we don't have yet is our admins table.

Now, it's a pretty simple table, and in our simple model, it doesn't have a relationship to the subjects or the pages. It's just a standalone table that we're going to use to decide if someone should be allowed access to our admin area. And you could create a fancier version of this CMS where an admin was the owner of the subject or page. Or you could keep track of which users last edited a page in a new table called Activity Log. We're just going to create a simple CMS though, so you get the key concepts. But you can certainly build features on top of our foundation once you get the hang of it. Let's go to my SQL now and add the Admins Table.

So from the command line, I'm going to go into MySQL. I'm going to go in with my user name widget_cms. You can also go in as root. If you want to use your root password that's fine, but our widget_cms user ought to have enough privileges to do what we want to do. And then dash p to say I'm going to provide the password, and then the name of the database I want it to drop me straight into. It's going to ask for the password for me that was just secret password. You might have something different, that's fine, now here I am inside my SQL, I'm just going to clear the screen so that it's back up here at the top. So let's create our admins table.

CREATE TABLE admins, and make sure that's plural, and then I'm going to open my parenthesis. Now, in the next time, I'm just going to indent a couple spaces, I'm going to put in my id. That's going to be like the other ids that we created, integer of size 11, NOT NULL, and AUTO_INCREMENT. Now, you don't have to do all capitals like this, I'm just doing it because I think it makes it clearer and easier to read, it's fine if you do it in lower case. It works just as well. Then I'll put a comma at the end, return, space space, username, that's going to be a VARCHAR field, remember, that's just a string.

It can be any length we want, but I'm going to limit it to 50. There's no reason we should have usernames longer than 50 characters. And then NOT NULL comma, and then we're going to do our hashed_password. That's going to be an encrypted password, and that's also going to be a string. And I'm going to make it of length 60. And there's a specific reason why I'm doing 60 so go ahead and make sure you do that as well. We'll talk about that when we get to incrementing. Not NULL and then last of all, primary key and then id is the primary key.

Okay, everything looks good so I'll just close my parenthesis from the top, put a semicolon at the end and now I've created my admins table. Show tables and there we are, show fields from admins, and there's what my table looks like. So I've now created my admins table, I have pages, I have subjects and I have admins. Those are the three tables that I'm going to need. Now, I do recommend that you try and create as many of your tables as you can right at the start of your project. If the data or modeling reveals any problems, you'll want to address those before you start, and it may change your approach to designing the pages. For example, our data model assumes that a page can only show up under one subject, and that's correct, that's exactly how we want it. But, if we discovered that the same page of content could appear under multiple subjects, then we might need to rethink our page navigation choices. So, to recap, in order, draw a blueprint for the whole project, then write up your data model.

And then create your database tables. At that point, you'll be ready to start developing.

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This video is part of

Image for PHP with MySQL Essential Training
PHP with MySQL Essential Training

131 video lessons · 32905 viewers

Kevin Skoglund
Author

 
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 54m 53s
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    5. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    6. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    7. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    8. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    9. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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