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Break

From: PHP with MySQL Essential Training

Video: Break

In this movie, we're going to learn to use Break with our loops. We've seen Break already. Remember, it was an important part of working with switch statements. We used Break to stop execution of any other cases, and then to exit switch function. We'll use it in a similar way with loops. Break will end execution of the loop. Not just the current iteration, but all iterations. You can think of it as breaking out of the loop. In the last movie, for the continue function I suggested the image of a Hollywood casting director saying next in the middle of an audition that was in progress.

Break

In this movie, we're going to learn to use Break with our loops. We've seen Break already. Remember, it was an important part of working with switch statements. We used Break to stop execution of any other cases, and then to exit switch function. We'll use it in a similar way with loops. Break will end execution of the loop. Not just the current iteration, but all iterations. You can think of it as breaking out of the loop. In the last movie, for the continue function I suggested the image of a Hollywood casting director saying next in the middle of an audition that was in progress.

Let's continue that metaphor here for a second. Break, would be if the casting director watched a few auditions and then said, this is the one. You've got the job, the rest of the auditions are canceled. I don't need to see any more. Break stops the whole process. And it's very useful when we've found what we're looking for or when we've reached a definitive answer to a question. We can stop looking, stop looping, and move on. Let's create an example. We'll start by taking basic.html I'm using Save As. And we'll save it as break.php.

Up here, we'll write break. And I'm just going to put in a simple loop. And I've got continue in there. This is the exact same loop that we had in the last movie. First, let's just bring up this version, and look at it in a browser. And remind ourselves what it does. Just save it, go to Firefox, and instead of continue now, I'm looking at break.php. So there it is. Notice that, the 5 is missing, because continue told it to skip over the 5. Instead of continue though, now let's tell it to break, so if it, count is equal to 5, it will break.

Come back here, and notice now it ended execution completely. It stopped not just this loop, and stopped from doing the echo statement, it ended this entire loop. It broke out of it. So once we get here and count is equal to 5, it executes break. And the very next thing it does, is it drops down here to the last curly brace and continues processing our PHP code from there. It never goes back an does any of these tests, or increments, or anything else. It just immediately exits our loop. Break will make your code a lot more efficient.

Let's imagine for a moment that you have 20,000 customer records, and we're looking for one record that matches a certain criteria. If we find the open that we want, when we get to the 100th loop, do we really need to keep looping for 19,900 more times? No, it's much more efficient to just break out of the loop and to say, I found it. We can stop looping and move on from here. Now, since you understand continue, I don't think we need to spend a lot more time with break. I think you get the idea behind it. But I do just want to show you that we also should take a look at what happens when you have a loop inside a loop using break.

Remember we did this with continue and we had this example or we had continue and we provided the argument of one or continue2, which told it to continue out of two loops. Well, let's look at this with break. Let's change this second one to be break. Right? Actually, let's remind ourselves, first of all, what this does. So, we'll just comment out this line and let's go back and reload the page. Okay, so that's what it looks like. That's what it does on it's own. Now, let's un-comment those lines and then when it gets to k equals to 3, it's going to break. There we go.

Notice that the 1-3, it did a break and at 3-3 it did a break. It didn't do the items that were after that but it did keep doing the first item. It did keep iterating and advancing i. Just like continue, if we provide an argument to it and say that we want to break out of two loops, it will break out of both of them. We have control over which ones we break out of by using an integer as an argument to break. Let's just try that so you see the difference. So here, we've basically said, all right, we're drilling down through one loop, we're using another loop, we finally found the item.

K equals to 3. That's it. So now I just break out of the looping structure completely. We don't need to keep doing anything else. You can go back and forth and change this number between 2 and 1, to see the difference between what it does. Now that we understand the three types of loops, and how to use continue and break with them, we'll be able to write very efficient looping structures. Before we move on, I want us to look at one more thing which is how array pointers work, and we'll do that in the next movie.

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This video is part of

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PHP with MySQL Essential Training

131 video lessons · 33271 viewers

Kevin Skoglund
Author

 
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 54m 53s
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    5. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    6. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    7. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    8. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    9. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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