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Add pages to the navigation subjects PHP in MySQL

MySQL makes it easy to create and improve navigation as you're working on a project. Up until this p… Show More

PHP with MySQL Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Add pages to the navigation subjects PHP in MySQL

MySQL makes it easy to create and improve navigation as you're working on a project. Up until this point, your navigation has just been a list of subjects, but now you can add the individual pages that correspond to each subject. This online video describes the process of adding pages to your navigation list.
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 1h 3m
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Installing to Yosemite
      8m 13s
    5. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    6. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    7. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    8. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    9. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    10. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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Adding pages to the navigation subjects
Video Duration: 5m 58s 14h 24m Beginner Updated May 20, 2015


MySQL makes it easy to create and improve navigation as you're working on a project. Up until this point, your navigation has just been a list of subjects, but now you can add the individual pages that correspond to each subject. This online video describes the process of adding pages to your navigation list.

View Course Description

PHP is a popular, reliable programming language at the foundation of many smart, data-driven websites. This comprehensive course from Kevin Skoglund helps developers learn the basics of PHP (including variables, logical expressions, loops, and functions), understand how to connect PHP to a MySQL database, and gain experience developing a complete web application with site navigation, form validation, and a password-protected admin area. Kevin also covers the basic CRUD routines for updating a database, debugging techniques, and usable user interfaces. Along the way, he provides practical advice, offers examples of best practices, and demonstrates refactoring techniques to improve existing code.

Topics include:
  • What is PHP?
  • Installing and configuring PHP and MySQL
  • Exploring data types
  • Controlling code with logical expressions and loops
  • Using PHP's built-in functions
  • Writing custom functions
  • Building dynamic webpages
  • Working with forms and form data
  • Using cookies and sessions to store data
  • Connecting to MySQL with PHP
  • Creating and editing database records
  • Building a content management system
  • Adding user authentication

Adding pages to the navigation subjects

In this chapter we're going to focus on creating and improving the navigation that we've started. So far navigation is just a simple list of subjects that we're iterating through in a simple loop. What we want to do now is add pages below each one of those subjects, that is to display the pages that belong to that subject below each one. We're going to do that in managecontent.php. Go ahead and open up that file. So what we want to do here, we're finding all of the subjects. And then right here we've got a loop where we're looping through all the subjects. We've got an li tag that displays each one of the subjects.

And what we want to do is right below that, display another list of pages. What we're going to do is put it inside these li tags. What I want is to have ul class pages/ul and then what I want is to list out a list items of all of the pages in here below each one. Its inside the li tag for the menu name. What we want is now a list of pages that belong to this item. So let's start by doing just a little bit of cleanup here. I'm just going to take out a few of these comments we don't need some of these. And I'm also going to go ahead and take this query that I was doing for the subjects.

I'm going to cut that and just drop it down here and do it right before I actually iterate through them. So it's right above it. And I'm also going to go down here and grab where I had the free result. Let's copy that and let's bring it right up here after we're done with it. Right as soon as we're done with the loop then we'll free the result here. So, now, the process that we want to do to iterate through these pages is to make another query. We want to query the database, and find out what pages belong to this subject that we're currently looping through. Well, the way we design the query. So we can just copy all of this up here.

And inside the loop. It can be anywhere inside the loop. But it has to be inside the loop. We're going to do our query. So here it is, but instead of doing select all from subjects, we're going to select all from pages. Where visible equals one order by position ascending. That all works great, however there's one additional thing that we need. This is going to find all pages for all subjects and we don't want to do that. We want to limit it only to the pages that belong to the current subject. So the way we'll do that is we'll add another item to query. And we'll make another condition where visible equals one and where subject id is equal to, and then in curly braces we'll put in our subject id. Now what is our subject id, well it just so happens that it's right up here where you can see it.

You can copy that, you can just drop it right in there. Now there's a problem with this. Be careful about this. When you're constructing these queries, notice I don't have a space after this one. I need a space here, otherwise, when it constructs this query, this subject id, let's say it's number four, will run together with the word order. It'll be four order, which is not valid SQL. So these spaces are very important when we're constructing SQL statements over multiple lines like that. You know we could also do it by concatenating strings, instead of by dropping it in right here. But even if we did that, you still want to make sure that you have that space right at the end. You could also put the space at the beginning of this line, and it would work just as well.

It's very important. Now let's think about what we've done here for a second. We've got, query, here that's a variable that we're reusing. We use it up here, we're using it again down here. But that's okay, because what we did was we assembled this string, and assigned it to the variable, query, and then we used it, and then we were done with it. That's not a problem. At this point we've used it for query and we are done with it, we don't need it any more. So we can reuse that. However, notice that we're also reusing result. That we're not done with. Here you see we're still looping through result, so we don't want to assign something else to that value, or that's going to mess up our loop. We want to keep that so we can keep working with it, so we can't reuse it. We have to give it a different name.

So let's call it page set. That'll make it clear that it's a result set. And then we can actually change this one up here to also be subject set, if you like. Just make sure that you change it in all places where we're using it, even down here where we free up the result. Okay, so now we have our query and we're using good variable names. Query comes back, we confirmed it, now we're ready to loop through it. And we know how to loop through because we've got it right here. You can go ahead and copy the li tag as well, and actually, I'll copy where it has subject name. We'll reuse all of that. I'll paste that in.

Now instead of subject, of course, we're going to be going through while page equals an item that we fetch from the page set. Page menu name, and we'll take away the id. We don't need that at this point. And then we've got our LI tag here, lets go ahead and just add an ending LI tag and I'll take away some of this extra space that's all on one line. So we'll loop through each one. We have the beginning of our while loop, with our curly brace but we don't have the ending, we need to have that ending curly brace as well. Let's line those up. So there we go.

While we have a page, go through and output that page's name. Then we'll loop back over the top and we'll go to the next one. Once we're done with all of those, we'll close out the ul, we'll close out the li for the subject. And then we'll be ready to loop again on the subjects and go back to the next subject. And it'll do the same process over again. The one thing we forgot was to free up the result, so let's do that as well. Right here after we're done with the page set, let's free that up. Now that result set is free. In truth it probably would have gotten rid of it when it reassigned it here, but it's always good idea just to make sure. Okay, so now that we've got all this let's try it out. Let's save it, see if our loop worked.

We're going to go to Firefox, and it's going to be a local host... For me, it's Kevin Scoland widget corp public manage content.php. And there it is. Got each of our subjects and then below we've got each of our pages. And I have a style in my style sheet that tells it to put the square in front of each of these pages. So there we go. Let's go ahead while we're at it, let's take away the ID for the subject. We don't need that anymore as well. That was good while we were doing some debugging. Let's save it and reload the page one more time and that's a little cleaner.

So now we have a navigation that displays both of our subjects and our pages. Make sure that you understand the process that we're going through and especially how those loops within loops work. In the next movie we're going to look at how we can improve this further by doing something called refactoring.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about PHP with MySQL Essential Training .

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Q: This course was revised on 6/4/2013. What changed?
A: The old version of this course was 6 years old and it was time for a complete revision, using PHP 5.4. (The tutorials will work with any version of PHP and covers any differences you might encounter). The author has also added updated installation instructions for Mac OS X Mountain Lion and Windows 8. The topics and end project are the same, but the code is slightly different. It also addresses frequently asked questions from the previous version.
Q: This course was updated on 5/20/2015. What changed?
A: We added one movie called "Changing the document root in Yosemite," which helps the Mac installation run more smoothly.





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