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Refining a key


Motion 5 Essential Training

with Ian Robinson

Video: Refining a key

As I'm sure most of you know, once you pull your initial key of green screen or a blue screen, there's plenty more work left to be done to actually get that key acceptable and have a finished polished project. So if we look at our project here, you'll notice we have our QuickTime file, which, let's play it back. You can see it's a dancer here, and she was shot on green screen, and there is a key filter applied to it. Let's select the filter and look in the Inspector and you can see it's the Keyer.
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  1. 14m 18s
    1. Welcome
      1m 6s
    2. Learning important definitions
      8m 13s
    3. Using the exercise files
      1m 37s
    4. Relinking missing media
      3m 22s
  2. 49m 41s
    1. Launching Motion for the first time
      4m 3s
    2. Navigating the interface
      9m 27s
    3. Creating and transforming objects in the Canvas
      6m 9s
    4. Controlling the Timing pane
      6m 29s
    5. Setting essential preferences
      6m 41s
    6. Customizing the keyboard
      5m 5s
    7. Using RAM preview and audio controls to get smooth preview playback
      5m 26s
    8. Introducing markers and audio
      6m 21s
  3. 26m 9s
    1. Adding assets to a project
      7m 56s
    2. Using the Library
      6m 4s
    3. Working with layers and groups
      6m 9s
    4. Understanding and using blend modes
      6m 0s
  4. 31m 15s
    1. Adding and adjusting behaviors
      7m 5s
    2. Adding multiple behaviors
      6m 31s
    3. Trimming and sliding behaviors
      8m 40s
    4. Using custom presets to create a slideshow
      8m 59s
  5. 29m 49s
    1. Animating manually using keyframes
      7m 49s
    2. Using the Record button
      6m 28s
    3. Manipulating keyframes with the Keyframe Editor
      10m 9s
    4. Combining keyframes and behaviors
      5m 23s
  6. 52m 33s
    1. Adding and formatting text
      7m 50s
    2. Using text styles
      10m 36s
    3. Formatting with the Transform Glyph tool
      5m 33s
    4. Animating text
      11m 17s
    5. Working with text on a path
      8m 16s
    6. Creating credit rolls
      9m 1s
  7. 31m 19s
    1. Match Move: Four-corner pin
      7m 25s
    2. Match Move: Transform
      11m 27s
    3. Stabilization
      5m 4s
    4. Retiming footage with behaviors
      7m 23s
  8. 16m 42s
    1. Applying and adjusting filters
      4m 18s
    2. Applying multiple filters
      7m 32s
    3. Timing a style with filters
      4m 52s
  9. 33m 35s
    1. Creating and adjusting shapes
      10m 7s
    2. Using shape behaviors
      7m 40s
    3. Creating and adjusting masks
      10m 47s
    4. Creating masks with objects
      5m 1s
  10. 34m 3s
    1. Using the keyer to composite green screen footage
      7m 28s
    2. Refining a key
      11m 6s
    3. Using masks to refine a green screen composite
      7m 54s
    4. Color-correcting elements to match within a green screen composite
      7m 35s
  11. 50m 2s
    1. Understanding generators
      4m 52s
    2. Applying text generators
      5m 41s
    3. Creating particle systems
      5m 49s
    4. Making adjustments to a particle system
      7m 33s
    5. Using particle behaviors
      5m 18s
    6. Creating paint strokes
      6m 58s
    7. Animating paint strokes
      4m 57s
    8. Using the Replicator
      5m 1s
    9. Replicating video
      3m 53s
  12. 47m 28s
    1. Viewing a scene in different layouts
      7m 17s
    2. Working with lights
      8m 12s
    3. Adjusting lighting and reflectivity
      9m 13s
    4. Creating and adjusting shadows
      4m 3s
    5. Creating replicators in 3D
      7m 50s
    6. Creating particles in 3D
      5m 7s
    7. Creating text in 3D
      5m 46s
  13. 42m 14s
    1. Working with cameras
      9m 3s
    2. Creating depth of field in a composition
      4m 55s
    3. Using camera behaviors
      9m 53s
    4. Create interest with the Focus behavior
      7m 26s
    5. Animating cameras with camera framing
      10m 57s
  14. 16m 36s
    1. Adding and adjusting audio
      9m 29s
    2. Adding audio markers
      7m 7s
  15. 17m 37s
    1. Sharing files
      6m 58s
    2. Creating a pre-render
      7m 5s
    3. Archiving a project
      3m 34s
  16. 26m 5s
    1. Creating drop zones
      4m 21s
    2. Setting up rigs: Slider rigs
      6m 56s
    3. Setting up rigs: Pop-up rigs
      4m 49s
    4. Making templates for Motion
      4m 3s
    5. Making templates for Final Cut Pro
      5m 56s
  17. 20m 39s
    1. Creating 3D text NEW
      4m 5s
    2. Working with 3D presets NEW
      1m 59s
    3. Building custom materials NEW
      5m 32s
    4. Modifying lighting NEW
      4m 37s
    5. Refining looks with multiple materials NEW
      4m 26s
  18. 1m 32s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 32s

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Watch the Online Video Course Motion 5 Essential Training
9h 1m Beginner Aug 05, 2011 Updated Aug 27, 2015

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Learn how to create stunning motion graphics and animations for video production. Author Ian Robinson explains how to format and animate type with the Transform Glyph tool and explores Motion's real-time 3D tools. The course also covers working in 3D space, creating depth with lights and shadows, keying green screen effects, and working with particle systems. In addition, Ian offers practical advice on integrating Motion into a professional video workflow and explains how to work smarter using rigs and templates.

Topics include:
  • Getting started with Motion and setting essential preferences
  • Working with layers, groups, and blend modes
  • Animating and adjusting behaviors
  • Building custom presets to create a slideshow
  • Keyframing animation
  • Animating type along a path
  • Creating credit rolls
  • Understanding generators
  • Adding reflections
  • Controlling and animating cameras
  • Creating depth of field in a composition
  • Adjusting audio
  • Exporting, sharing, and archiving a project
Ian Robinson

Refining a key

As I'm sure most of you know, once you pull your initial key of green screen or a blue screen, there's plenty more work left to be done to actually get that key acceptable and have a finished polished project. So if we look at our project here, you'll notice we have our QuickTime file, which, let's play it back. You can see it's a dancer here, and she was shot on green screen, and there is a key filter applied to it. Let's select the filter and look in the Inspector and you can see it's the Keyer.

And the Keyer is kind of interesting in that it automatically analyzes the image and determines exactly what color to key out. Now if we look at the original image by clicking on the right thumbnail in the View section, you'll notice, yes, it is a green-screen shot, and the default setting for this filter did automatically key out the green. Now, as you can see with our hair here, there are some white pixels around the edge, and a lot of times as I'm making adjustments to a key, yes, I like to keep motion moving in real time, but also sometimes I like to actually park on a frame where I can see some specific issues, so as I make adjustments, we'll see exactly what's happening.

Now, if you're joining me from the last video, Fill Holes, Edge Distance, and Spill Level might be familiar, but let me just recap really quick. The Fill Holes starts filling in the tiny holes of a key to try and fix any areas that may have accidentally been keyed out that shouldn't have been. Now, this image I think looks pretty good the way it is, so I am going to leave it alone. Now, Edge Distance just determines how close to the edge this Fill Holes command will actually fill in. Now, the one I want you to pay attention to here is Spill Level.

If I drag this back to the left here, you'll notice there's a fair amount of green that's already in this image. Now, this happens pretty naturally when you shoot green screen; especially if somebody is standing a little too close to the background of the green screen, you'll get a lot of reflection on their skin tones. Now thankfully, this was shot really well, so we have minor, minor things to deal with. What you want to do is drag this Spill Level up and to the right until it gets rid of the green, but you don't want it to unnecessarily start pulling anything else out from the image.

Invert just literally inverts the key that we have, so it's now keying out her actual body as opposed to the background. Now let's look in the Advanced section. If you open the disclosure triangle, there are two main sections: Scrub Boxes and Manual. And typically when you work in the Advanced area, you want to start with making adjustments to your Scrub Boxes, and if you decide you want to go to the Manual area, do so, but don't go back and make more adjustments to the Scrub Boxes.

Now, if we look at this wheel here, this box is showing me the main sampling of green pixels that were used to determine this actual initial key. Now, if you click on one edge or the other, you can increase the amount of area that's actually been keyed, and notice as I drag this, you can see right around the edges here it's actually starting to pull a little bit more of the image and rolling the edges of that mat in. It's a very, very subtle adjustment, but basically we're increasing the amount of variance to the left of that image.

If you decide you want a wider initial selection, you need to go back up and use Refine Key to manually set the amount of selections. Now, if you're unfamiliar with how to do that, jump to the previous video-- I covered that pretty well in there. Now, Manual just gives me a manual control over the sliders for the amount of luma that we're adjusting with the key. In this example, I don't need to use Manual, so let's just go back to our Scrub Boxes here.

I want you to understand Rolloff. We have two settings: there is the Chroma Rolloff and the Luma Rolloff. Now, whenever a key is pulled, it's a combination between the actual chrominance value, which is the color saturation of the image itself, and then there is the Luma Rolloff, and the luma is the brightness of that color. So as we're making adjustments to the Rolloff, notice it is kind of adjusting the edges as well as how much of that image is being keyed, based on the chrominance or the luminance.

So this just gives you a little bit more finite control over exactly where the image is getting keyed and how much of it is getting keyed and how soft that transition is actually happening. See, as I adjust the Luminance Rolloff, notice here in the Luma graph, the edge of this curve is getting more and more sharp. As it gets more sharp, the sharper the transition from the key to the keyed-out areas are going to be. So it's going to create a more jagged look to the mask.

So I'll just bring my Luminance Rolloff back over here to the left. We'll leave these values around 25 and 29 accordingly. Now we've covered the primary areas of the Keyer that deal with actually pulling the key, selecting the colors we're going to pull, and knocking that out. Now, the next area here is the Matte tools. Now, the Matte tools adjust the matte that's actually generated from the key. But it is separate. We're not actually adjusting any of the parameters that have to do with the color or its saturation.

We're literally just adjusting this matte. So one of the most common things to adjust is Shrink/Expand. If I drag to the left, it's going to shrink the mask. If I drag to the right, it's going to expand our selection here. So typically you want to have something in the middle. If anything, probably roll it back a little bit. When I did that, notice I've made these harsh edges. So you can adjust that by adjusting the Soften command as well as the Erode command. Now, Erode is kind of different than softness in that it adjusts how the transparency increases from the solid portion of the key inward.

Usually what I like to do is use the "if it looks good it is good" and just kind of click and drag to adjust the Softness and the Erode settings. Now, it's really important as you make these adjustments to kind of bounce back and forth between viewing the matte and the composite of our key. So I'll leave my settings set like this for now, but a lot of times what you'll end up doing is adjusting one thing, going and adjusting the next thing, and then coming back. So we will come back to the Matte tools here in a second. I want you to look at Spill Suppression.

This is a separate, slightly more refined option for adjusting the Spill controls. Notice up here we had our Spill Levels in the top of our key section in the Keyer, but now we have Spill Contrast here, which helps you adjust a couple of things: Tint, which mixes in the color values of the original image, and the Saturation, which is obviously how saturated that mix is going to be. Now, you can adjust the Contrast as far as how much contrast there is between the actual spilled image and its adjusted counterpart.

So notice as I click here on the white and adjust the Contrast, it's taking the white areas of the spill and kind of crushing out the green in there. Now, I know I don't want to make any adjustments in my Spill Contrast, so I'll reset that back to its original settings. A lot of times I found my most success by adjusting the Light Wrap. This is kind of cool. Light Wrap analyzes the background video and mixes that in around the edges of our keyed footage.

This works extraordinarily well if you're actually trying to mix in the footage over background video, as opposed to something like this, a solid color. So if we go to our file browser here, we can navigate in our exercise files, in the Media folder, under Footage, for green screen. Here we have some background video footage. Now, I want to go ahead and superimpose her on the sidewalk. So we can drag and drop the sidewalk video footage right above our background red video here.

And now let's go to the Inspector, make sure we have our Keyer selected, and in the Filter selection go down under Light Wrap. Now, just crank up the amount of Light Wrap in the image and see what starts to happen. Notice we crank this all the way up to 50. We get a very soft look that's moving into the scene. But if you notice it's actually blending in different colors and areas of the scene back into our keyed footage. Now, obviously this amount is a little much, so I'll bring it down to around 16. But we can also adjust the Intensity as well as the Opacity of this mixture.

So you can really get a nice fine adjustment. Notice as I drag the intensity down to the left, I'm getting rid of some of the issues that I had with the white pixels around the edges of her hair and the edges of her face. That's because the intensity adjusts the gamma levels to the lightened or darkened sections of the wrapped edge values around the foreground image. You can even adjust the blend mode, but for now I like how this is looking so far.

Now, remember how I said we would jump back up to our Matte tools? I want to do that because I'm still getting this white halo around the hair, and if we drag on the right side of the image here, notice it's introducing more white into the image, which is not what I want to do. So I'll leave the white area set up and reset the black point here, and you notice now as I do that what it's doing is it's crushing out the black levels of the matte that's been created.

So if we look at our matte object here, notice as I drag this left and right, it's kind of hard to see, but you can see it more here along the edges of our logo. What it's doing, it's taking anything that's gray and making it more and more black. Now, what this is also doing is allowing me to kind of cut out some of those problem areas in the edges of her hair. And if we adjust the gray levels, it's also going to make an adjustment. Let's go ahead and drag that up to the right, and here you notice now I'm starting to get rid of some of that white along the edge of her hair.

So now that I've adjusted the matte and gone through all of the different adjustments within the Advanced options for the Keyer, the only thing that's really left to do is actually match back the color of the image and deal with creating a holdout mask. So that pretty much wraps up our quick tour of the Advanced options for the Keyer.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Motion 5 Essential Training .

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Q: This course was updated on 08/27/2015. What changed?
A: We added a brand new chapter, "16. Creating 3D Text," which covers the 3D titles included in Motion 5.2.
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