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Creating Textures and Shaders in Maya
Illustration by Richard Downs

Looking at refraction


From:

Creating Textures and Shaders in Maya

with Eric Keller

Video: Looking at refraction

Refractions occur when light passes through a transparent medium, such as glass or plastic. The individual photons of light are actually slowed down as they passed to the medium, which creates distortion. This distortion is what we see visually as refraction. I'll take a look of the scene. I have a couple of teapots here. I've created a render. Let's take a look at the render here. This teapot on the left here is completely transparent, but it shows no refraction. In other words, you can see the checkerboard pattern through the transparent surface is still perfectly undistorted.
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  1. 2m 19s
    1. Welcome
      1m 6s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 13s
  2. 17m 49s
    1. Explaining diffuse reflections
      2m 39s
    2. Defining glossy and blurred reflections
      2m 32s
    3. Looking at refraction
      4m 20s
    4. Describing the Fresnel effect
      1m 56s
    5. Understanding anisotropy
      1m 10s
    6. Identifying ambient and reflection occlusion
      1m 49s
    7. Defining sub-surface scattering
      2m 4s
    8. Simulating translucency
      1m 19s
  3. 1h 8m
    1. Using Maya's standard shaders with mental ray
      7m 2s
    2. Comparing mental ray and Maya shader nodes
      9m 12s
    3. Creating mental ray shaders
      2m 32s
    4. Making sense of mental ray shaders
      10m 35s
    5. Introducing the mia_material
      9m 16s
    6. Creating a custom mia_material preset
      9m 17s
    7. Looking at car paint materials
      6m 43s
    8. Using subsurface scattering shaders
      13m 33s
  4. 1h 5m
    1. Understanding UV coordinates
      4m 26s
    2. Comparing NURBS and polygon UVs
      4m 48s
    3. Mapping polygon UV surfaces
      13m 1s
    4. Using texture maps for color and other shader channels
      8m 1s
    5. Applying and projecting 2D procedural texture nodes
      4m 0s
    6. Applying 3D procedural texture nodes
      7m 1s
    7. Using ramp textures
      8m 12s
    8. Setting up utility nodes
      6m 29s
    9. Using file texture nodes
      9m 41s
  5. 22m 36s
    1. Applying the turbulence texture
      9m 37s
    2. Considering the round corners texture
      4m 17s
    3. Improving skin detail with ambient occlusion
      4m 27s
    4. Applying reflection occlusion
      4m 15s
  6. 33m 6s
    1. Painting bump maps
      4m 14s
    2. Creating normal maps
      5m 24s
    3. Applying normal maps
      6m 17s
    4. Creating displacement maps
      9m 14s
    5. Troubleshooting displacement maps
      7m 57s
  7. 33s
    1. Goodbye
      33s

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Creating Textures and Shaders in Maya
3h 30m Intermediate Sep 28, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Creating Textures and Shaders in Maya with Eric Keller shows how to create textures and materials, and then apply them to models to render realistic surfaces. The course covers working with the mental ray shading nodes, including the mental images architectural node, subsurface scattering nodes, occlusion, and car paint shaders, as well as how to incorporate these nodes into shading networks using the Hypershade editor. It also explores using textures, Maya software nodes, normal maps, and displacement maps for adding detail to models. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding shading concepts
  • Simulating the Fresnel effect for realistic reflections
  • Rendering transparent and translucent surfaces
  • Comparing mental ray and Maya standard shaders
  • Introducing the mia_material
  • Developing shader networks
  • Using subsurface scattering shaders
  • Mapping polygon UV coordinates
  • Incorporating texture nodes into networks
  • Improving skin detail with ambient occlusion
  • Painting bump maps
  • Creating normal and displacement maps
  • Troubleshooting maps
Subjects:
3D + Animation Textures Materials
Software:
Maya
Author:
Eric Keller

Looking at refraction

Refractions occur when light passes through a transparent medium, such as glass or plastic. The individual photons of light are actually slowed down as they passed to the medium, which creates distortion. This distortion is what we see visually as refraction. I'll take a look of the scene. I have a couple of teapots here. I've created a render. Let's take a look at the render here. This teapot on the left here is completely transparent, but it shows no refraction. In other words, you can see the checkerboard pattern through the transparent surface is still perfectly undistorted.

It looks just like the texture in the background. The only difference between this surface on this teapot here and this teapot is that I've turned on refractions for this surface. So now you can see that the checkerboard pattern is actually distorted. As we look through the surface, we can see this distortion. That's known as refraction. I've created another diagram here to illustrate this point using dynamics. Imagine this is a transparent surface that has a fare amount of thickness it. So this is the top of the surface and this is the bottom of the surface.

Right here is the medium. I'm going to play the simulation. You can see as the photons of light hit the surface and pass through it, the direction is actually altered. This is what's causes the distortion known as refraction. Just like with reflective surfaces, if the actual surface of the transparent object is somewhat rough or bumpy, as the light passes through the surface, it's going to be refracted in all directions. This is going to create what's known as a blurred refraction.

So we can see that as a light passes through the surface, it's fairly rough, it starts to get bounced in all directions. So in this rendering, I have two surfaces which are identical in the terms of how much they refract the light is passing through the surface. I've turned off reflections so that you can clearly see how the light is being refracted. But in this case, I have a nice smooth surface. So the refracted light is being refracted, but you can see that it's fairly clear.

On this surface over here, I've made the refractions blurry. So the surface appears rough. It's kind of like a plastic. So there is just some blurriness to the refractions here. So as you're designing your surfaces, if you're trying to think of how to do something like the plastic surface or very frosted glass or something like that, you want to consider how blurry the refractions are going to be. The other important concept to understand when talking about refractions is the index of refraction. The index of refraction or refractive index, sometimes as abbreviated as IOR, is the ratio of the speed of light through a given medium relative to the speed of light in a vacuum.

So when you work with the shaders in mental ray it's important to know the index of the refraction of the surface you're trying to stimulate. For example, water has an index of refraction of about 1.33. So in this rendering, I have three different teapots just to demonstrate how changing the index of refraction will affect the appearance of your surface. So on the far left here I have a teapot with index of refraction of 1. So this means that the light is not really being refracted at all. So as light passes through the surface, we can clearly see the checkerboard pattern through the surface.

The teapot in the middle has a refractive index of 1.33, which is about the same for clear water. So now you can see how the checkerboard pattern is distorted here. Here on the far right, I have a refractive index of 2.4, which is about the refractive index of diamonds. So you can see that the surface is very refractive, so that the background images are very distorted. Once again, I've turned off reflections on these surfaces. So you're only seeing the refractive quality of it. So they look a little bit unrealistic.

But when you combine reflection and refraction, you can start to develop very realistic looking shaders. If you want to know the index of refraction for a particular shader that you're trying to develop, you can just do a search on the Internet for the term index of refraction and you'll find charts available posted online that list the various refractive indices for surfaces.

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