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Laying out the UV coordinates

From: Game Prop Creation in Maya

Video: Laying out the UV coordinates

I've finished unwrapping this gas pump. Everything is fairly well proportionate and all the squares are squares as I spin around and check. Now it's time to layout these UVs to make best use of my texture space. The way I've set it up is that I've got mirrored sides and fronts, and the top is unique. I've also planned it so I've got a clean texture scene here where there is a natural seam in the reference, where the top has a lip that laps over the side. On the front I've planned in that texture to correspond with the joint between the white and the red paint. So as long as I paint to it and have decent rust around, it will be a good match.

Laying out the UV coordinates

I've finished unwrapping this gas pump. Everything is fairly well proportionate and all the squares are squares as I spin around and check. Now it's time to layout these UVs to make best use of my texture space. The way I've set it up is that I've got mirrored sides and fronts, and the top is unique. I've also planned it so I've got a clean texture scene here where there is a natural seam in the reference, where the top has a lip that laps over the side. On the front I've planned in that texture to correspond with the joint between the white and the red paint. So as long as I paint to it and have decent rust around, it will be a good match.

Now I'm going to lay this out. I'll go into my Texture Editor and look at stacking and laying out UVs to make the best use of this. Textures tend to be square, and they're powers of two. What we need to do then is make the best use of our texture space and accommodate possible variation in the number of objects and also wear and tear. What we're seeing here right now is that I'm out of my zero to one space, which is called the normal range. I need to stay within this so I'm always safe when exporting. Depending on where you're going, you can use the full UV range if you need, but it's better to stay within zero to one, depending on which engine you're exporting to.

This size is relative; it's not pinned to a pixel size until we do a snapshot. What I'll do is start to lay out some pieces. I'll pick my Move UV Shell tool and start to grab UVs and pull them off to the side so I can see what's going on. There are the sides and tops, and I can see that they're a little out of order. What I need to do is to flip these around so that bump maps work the same on both sides. If UVs are flipped and they're backwards, as shown here in red, bump maps that should go out will go in.

Things like flaking paint will appear to go into the object instead of sticking out from the surface. What I can do to make the selection easy here is to convert some selections back and forth so I can flip things and keep both sides aligned. Here's how I will make this work. Instead of spacing out my UVs, I'll undo. I'll get these stacked back up as they were, and I'll go and pick both fronts and move them off. Over in my viewport I can press F11 for face and pick a face. I'll spin around and pick one face on the other front.

Up here in the UV Texture Editor, I'll choose Select and select Shell. It selects all the faces in that UV shell. And I can press Ctrl+F12 and convert that selection to UVs. Then I can move them using the Move UV Shell tool off, and there are both fronts and both sides now separate. Now I can deal with the backwards-facing UVs. I can see that A, B, C, and D are flipped here. That's why I put those letters in that UV map, so I can tell which way it's facing. What I will do is use the same technique, only picking one side and flipping it.

I'll pick one face and here under Select, choose Select Shell. I'll press Ctrl+F12 to convert to the UV Shell and choose Polygons > Flip. They flip around but are still stacked. Whether we use all of it or not, we're still loading this texture space in memory. My plan then is to stack these UVs. That way they share texture on fronts and sides, and I can get more detail painted in that UV space. Then I'll get these arranged and laid out once they're all stacked in and see what else I have space for.

Because it's a gas pump, I need to allot some space in here eventually for a hose and nozzle. Or maybe there's another fitting I want to end up using. I'll repeat this process on the sides, looking for this side that's backwards. There it is, and I will pick that face. I'll choose Select > Select Shell and Ctrl+F12. Then I'll take this face and choose Polygons > Flip. Now I've got the sides stacked, and I can start to lay this out. I'll use my Move UV Shell tool. I'll pick these shells and slide them over next to the fronts.

This way I've got some continuity I can paint across here if needed. Finally, I'll pick the top and press R for Scale. After all that work to get it proportionate, I want to make sure I'm scaling uniformly, so I'm going to click in the middle and scale it down. I'll move it over and place it in right here. It's a decent layout. The one last thing to do is to make sure these shells are not touching the edge. I've got some leftover space here, which I can probably use for something else like a tool or maybe there is a tire or maybe there is an air and water nozzle or something else that I can use here.

What I do need to do so it imports properly into Unity is make sure I select these shells and scale them down. Unity tends to have issues if shells are touching the edge of the UV space, so I'm going to pull them down slightly and then move them over, just making sure they're inside. I want to give myself a little bit of a margin here. That way, depending on the size of this texture, if this comes near the edge, it's still going to be okay. I'm ready to snap-shot this and start painting.

I'll save this model. Then I'll figure out how big to paint and start in on first the clean paint and then to the general wear and tear. This is a fairly easy object to model. Really what I'm after when I'm modeling props is that I'm using my texture space elegantly, and I'm modeling to get the right silhouette and the right number of curves in the model, keeping it low poly. We can still spend some faces where we need, on key contours, to make sure it really looks like the model it's supposed to, watching out for the hallmarks of the design, things like those round corners and slight tapered shape that really denote it as Art Deco.

It's going to match in with my gas station nicely. And I'll be able to paint on it easily, and my UVs are laid out cleanly so that I get distortion-free rust and general grime on my gas pump when I'm all done.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Game Prop Creation in Maya
Game Prop Creation in Maya

90 video lessons · 6577 viewers

Adam Crespi
Author

 
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  1. 7m 22s
    1. Welcome
      43s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 35s
    3. What you should know before watching this course
      23s
    4. Setting up the workflow
      4m 41s
  2. 46m 16s
    1. Overview of modeling a large prop and planning for modular textures and models
      6m 53s
    2. Blocking out the overall form
      6m 14s
    3. Adding curved panels
      3m 26s
    4. Rounding the corners
      6m 46s
    5. Unwrapping the face frame
      6m 39s
    6. Unwrapping the sides
      5m 8s
    7. Moving and sewing UVs
      5m 23s
    8. Laying out the UV coordinates
      5m 47s
  3. 1h 50m
    1. Overview of the texturing process and PSD networks
      4m 43s
    2. Creating a bump map for the sides
      10m 55s
    3. Adding details to the bump map
      8m 6s
    4. Drawing the bump map for the front
      7m 51s
    5. Adding details to the panels
      7m 45s
    6. Painting the diffuse texture and planning the layers
      3m 35s
    7. Painting the base coat and the logo
      5m 24s
    8. Adding labels and other markings
      10m 45s
    9. Adding soft rust
      8m 32s
    10. Adding rust bubbles
      8m 58s
    11. Setting up a library of gas pump textures
      6m 40s
    12. Painting dirt and rust variations
      5m 23s
    13. Weathering away the paint
      5m 1s
    14. Converting bump maps to normal maps
      5m 36s
    15. Testing the maps
      11m 8s
  4. 1h 28m
    1. Overview of modeling small props
      1m 59s
    2. Modeling a sledgehammer
      6m 11s
    3. Modeling a pry bar
      6m 26s
    4. Adding detail and hardening edges
      5m 28s
    5. Unwrapping as part of building a texture sheet for small tools
      8m 27s
    6. Modeling a metal ladder
      8m 51s
    7. Unwrapping and cloning
      8m 46s
    8. Placing the clean texture
      8m 39s
    9. Laying out a texture sheet for multiple tools
      8m 37s
    10. Painting rusty steel
      7m 46s
    11. Adding dirt and wear
      5m 42s
    12. Planning for optimal texture usage
      7m 37s
    13. Painting dirt and age variations
      3m 42s
  5. 1h 45m
    1. Modeling furniture using simple parts and reusable textures
      2m 53s
    2. Planning and analyzing the modeling of a chair
      4m 56s
    3. Blocking out the basic form
      8m 24s
    4. Adding detail and softening edges
      6m 42s
    5. Refining the silhouette
      12m 9s
    6. Blocking out the form of a round chair
      7m 39s
    7. Adding detail and softening the edges of a round chair
      5m 20s
    8. Unwrapping as part of building a texture sheet for furniture
      14m 36s
    9. Planning the modeling of a table
      3m 14s
    10. Blocking out the basic table form
      4m 41s
    11. Adding legs to the table
      7m 6s
    12. Breaking up the model for texturing
      7m 55s
    13. Laying out the wood texture
      9m 29s
    14. Reusing parts to make a round table
      10m 12s
  6. 39m 23s
    1. Understanding the importance of painting textures from scratch
      2m 9s
    2. Creating the initial grain lines
      4m 43s
    3. Adding value variation across the grain
      2m 22s
    4. Warping the grain
      2m 50s
    5. Adding knots
      4m 27s
    6. Colorizing the grain and planning for stains
      6m 53s
    7. Cutting out boards for a UV layout
      5m 26s
    8. Adding patina and wear to a final texture
      10m 33s
  7. 1h 2m
    1. Understanding the importance of a low poly count
      4m 46s
    2. Overview of normal maps
      9m 26s
    3. Overview of the high-poly projection pipeline
      3m 10s
    4. Planning the UV space for projection
      5m 29s
    5. Working with hard edges and subdividing
      7m 22s
    6. Adding details by beveling and extruding
      6m 50s
    7. Fixing geometry
      7m 39s
    8. Using the Sculpt Geometry tool and soft selection to add dents
      9m 32s
    9. Baking the high-poly model onto the low-poly model to produce a normal map
      8m 21s
  8. 51m 4s
    1. Overview of Mudbox
      4m 26s
    2. Preparing for a smooth export to Mudbox
      7m 43s
    3. Importing from Mudbox: Choosing the right resolution
      5m 9s
    4. Using the sculpt tools
      8m 30s
    5. Painting
      8m 58s
    6. Exporting paint layers from Mudbox
      1m 35s
    7. Extracting and exporting a normal map from Mudbox
      6m 2s
    8. Importing and assigning objects and maps in Unity
      8m 41s
  9. 41m 4s
    1. Overview of ambient occlusion and specularity
      5m 55s
    2. Setting up ambient occlusion as a texture
      7m 3s
    3. Using ambient occlusion as a foundation for dirt
      6m 44s
    4. Using ambient occlusion as a foundation for rust
      10m 5s
    5. Painting a specular map
      6m 48s
    6. Streamlining the import process: Placing maps in the right channels
      4m 29s
  10. 21m 46s
    1. Overview of importing into Unity
      3m 15s
    2. Preparing and exporting props to Unity
      7m 54s
    3. Cloning props in Unity with different looks
      5m 21s
    4. Adding lights to test smoothing and textures
      5m 16s
  11. 22s
    1. Next steps
      22s

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