Unix for Mac OS X Users
Illustration by John Hersey

grep: Coloring matched text


From:

Unix for Mac OS X Users

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: grep: Coloring matched text

You can see how grep is a really power full tool. There is one more thing that I want to show you. Let me just do grep for lorem ipsum again. lorem inside lorem ipsum. Now here's the content there. So you see that this line has lorem in it and this line over here has lorem in it and here it says lorem again, so I'm seeing each of those lines. But it's a little hard to find those matches. Grep also offers an option called color which is really useful. Color and now you can see that it colors those. Color also can have a couple of variations. color equals auto, color equals always, or color equals never.
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  1. 3m 57s
    1. Introduction
      1m 14s
    2. Using the exercise files
      2m 43s
  2. 32m 2s
    1. What is Unix?
      7m 27s
    2. The terminal application
      4m 23s
    3. Logging in and using the command prompt
      5m 19s
    4. Command structure
      5m 22s
    5. Kernel and shells
      5m 25s
    6. Unix manual pages
      4m 6s
  3. 15m 58s
    1. The working directory
      2m 49s
    2. Listing files and directories
      3m 59s
    3. Moving around the filesystem
      4m 58s
    4. Filesystem organization
      4m 12s
  4. 1h 4m
    1. Naming files
      5m 41s
    2. Creating files
      2m 19s
    3. Unix text editors
      6m 39s
    4. Reading files
      5m 35s
    5. Reading portions of files
      3m 27s
    6. Creating directories
      2m 40s
    7. Moving and renaming files and directories
      8m 32s
    8. Copying files and directories
      3m 7s
    9. Deleting files and directories
      3m 38s
    10. Finder aliases in Unix
      4m 10s
    11. Hard links
      5m 30s
    12. Symbolic links
      6m 36s
    13. Searching for files and directories
      6m 32s
  5. 34m 58s
    1. Who am I?
      4m 3s
    2. Unix groups
      1m 52s
    3. File and directory ownership
      6m 41s
    4. File and directory permissions
      4m 27s
    5. Setting permissions using alpha notation
      6m 49s
    6. Setting permissions using octal notation
      3m 49s
    7. The root user
      1m 57s
    8. sudo and sudoers
      5m 20s
  6. 52m 34s
    1. Command basics
      4m 4s
    2. The PATH variable
      4m 13s
    3. System information commands
      3m 40s
    4. Disk information commands
      6m 8s
    5. Viewing processes
      5m 0s
    6. Monitoring processes
      3m 36s
    7. Stopping processes
      3m 19s
    8. Text file helpers
      6m 50s
    9. Utility programs
      7m 28s
    10. Using the command history
      8m 16s
  7. 20m 39s
    1. Standard input and standard output
      1m 24s
    2. Directing output to a file
      4m 13s
    3. Appending to a file
      2m 44s
    4. Directing input from a file
      5m 28s
    5. Piping output to input
      4m 40s
    6. Suppressing output
      2m 10s
  8. 41m 28s
    1. Profile, login, and resource files
      9m 11s
    2. Setting command aliases
      6m 59s
    3. Setting and exporting environment variables
      4m 54s
    4. Setting the PATH variable
      6m 10s
    5. Configuring history with variables
      6m 17s
    6. Customizing the command prompt
      6m 5s
    7. Logout file
      1m 52s
  9. 1h 25m
    1. grep: Searching for matching expressions
      5m 21s
    2. grep: Multiple files, other input
      4m 28s
    3. grep: Coloring matched text
      2m 57s
    4. Introduction to regular expressions
      3m 22s
    5. Regular expressions: Basic syntax
      3m 19s
    6. Using regular expressions with grep
      5m 20s
    7. tr: Translating characters
      8m 17s
    8. tr: Deleting and squeezing characters
      5m 30s
    9. sed: Stream editor
      7m 45s
    10. sed: Regular expressions and back-references
      7m 8s
    11. cut: Cutting select text portions
      7m 42s
    12. diff: Comparing files
      4m 35s
    13. diff: Alternative formats
      4m 30s
    14. xargs: Passing argument lists to commands
      7m 25s
    15. xargs: Usage examples
      7m 59s
  10. 42m 25s
    1. Finder integration
      4m 45s
    2. Clipboard integration
      5m 5s
    3. Screen capture
      3m 42s
    4. Shut down, reboot, and sleep
      3m 34s
    5. Text to speech
      2m 36s
    6. Spotlight integration: Searching metadata
      3m 41s
    7. Spotlight integration: Metadata attributes
      4m 24s
    8. Using AppleScript
      5m 23s
    9. System configurations: Viewing and setting
      5m 51s
    10. System configurations: Examples
      3m 24s
  11. 1m 26s
    1. Conclusion
      1m 26s

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Watch the Online Video Course Unix for Mac OS X Users
6h 35m Beginner Apr 29, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Unix for Mac OS X Users unlocks the powerful capabilities of Unix that underlie Mac OS X, teaching how to use command-line syntax to perform common tasks such as file management, data entry, and text manipulation. The course teaches Unix from the ground up, starting with the basics of the command line and graduating to powerful, advanced tools like grep, sed, and xargs. The course shows how to enter commands in Terminal to create, move, copy, and delete files and folders; change file ownership and permissions; view and stop command and application processes; find and edit data within files; and use command-line shortcuts to speed up workflow. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Moving around the file system
  • Creating and reading files
  • Copying, moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories
  • Creating hard links and symbolic links
  • Understanding user identity, file ownership, and sudo
  • Setting file permissions with alpha and octal notation
  • Changing the PATH variable
  • Using the command history
  • Directing input and output
  • Configuring the Unix working environment
  • Searching and replacing using grep and regular expressions
  • Manipulating text with tr, sed, and cut
  • Integrating with the Finder, Spotlight, and AppleScript
Subject:
IT
Software:
Mac OS X Unix
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

grep: Coloring matched text

You can see how grep is a really power full tool. There is one more thing that I want to show you. Let me just do grep for lorem ipsum again. lorem inside lorem ipsum. Now here's the content there. So you see that this line has lorem in it and this line over here has lorem in it and here it says lorem again, so I'm seeing each of those lines. But it's a little hard to find those matches. Grep also offers an option called color which is really useful. Color and now you can see that it colors those. Color also can have a couple of variations. color equals auto, color equals always, or color equals never.

Always of course will always provide the coloring. Never will not do it. What auto does is auto says I want you to color it if you're showing it to me on the Terminal, but not when you're sending it somewhere else like to a file or a pipe. And the reason why it is, there is actually some special characters around the word lorem there every time so that it knows to display it. Otherwise how would it find those? What we don't want is those special characters to accidentally slip into a file. So auto is the option that'll take care of that for us. Now by default this color is going to be red, but if we want to change that we can do it using a shell variable.

We saw how to work with shell variables. Let's just go back into our user directory and we'll open up our bashrc file and I'm just going to scroll down here to the bottom of these exports that I've done before and I'm just going to paste in some text that we will then take a look at. Let me just scroll up here so you can see the top of it. So these are the grep color codes. That's the name of the environment variable, grep_color, and I've given you the different numbers, so you know what they all mean. But here's the command down here, export GREP_COLOR and then in quotes put the colors that you want separated by semicolons. So you can pick different attributes. You want to pick only one text color and only one background, but you can pick several attributes.

So for example this is 34 blue. 47 is white. So it's going to be blue text on a white background and that's how it will show me those. We'll just take a look at that in a second. There's also another one down here which is export GREP_OPTIONS and then you can provide options that you want grep to use all the time. So if you always want to do a case insensitive search, well you can put the -I option here. I've put --color equals auto and there is my grep option. That's probably the one people use most often. So feel free to use these or don't use them. But I just wanted you to see them and know how they work, because a lot of people really like them.

So let's just save that file and one last time I'll go up and let's rep. I actually have to specify it's inside the Unix files directory now. Oh! It didn't work. I need to run that file source.bashrc. All right, and now that I've loaded that file or if you close the window and reopen it, now that bashrc file is run and now you can see the results of the coloring. So that's the basics of working with grep. As you can see it's really complex tool. So far we've just been using a regular string. Where it really gets powerful is when we start working with regular expressions and that's what we'll do in the next movie.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Unix for Mac OS X Users .


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Q: The exercise files for the following movies appear to be broken:
07_02_files
07_03_files
07_04_files
07_05_files
08_03_files

Is there something wrong with them?
These exercises include one or more "dot files", whose file names start with a period. These files are normally hidden from view by the Finder.  So that they would show up in the Finder, the period has been removed from the file names. Additionally, "_example" has been added at the end of the file name to make it clear that the file will not work as-is. To make the dot files usable, either:

1) Open the file in a text editor to view its contents. Note that it may not be possible to double-click the file to open it because there is no file extension (such as .txt).
2) Resave the file under a new name (usually by choosing File > Save As), adding a "." to the beginning of the file name and removing "_example" from the end.

OR

1) Copy and rename the file from the Unix command line using the techniques discussed in this course. Rename the file by adding a "." to the start and removing "_example" from the end. Include the "-i" option to prevent overwriting an existing file unexpectedly.
Example:  cp -i ~/Desktop/Exercise\ Files/Chapter_07/07_02_files/bashrc_example ~/.bashrc
 
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