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Unix for Mac OS X Users
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diff: Comparing files


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Unix for Mac OS X Users

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: diff: Comparing files

In this movie we're going to take a look at a Unix tool called DIFF, which is useful for comparing two files. Imagine that a client sends you revisions to a text document. You still have the original document but you can't tell where the client changed. You could put the two documents side-by- side and then scan each one looking for the differences then every time you find a difference you could take note of it. That's exactly what DIFF does for you, but much faster and with greater precision than you could. Using DIFF is easy. Notice that I am inside my user directory and inside unix_files and we're going to be working with two files that I've added to this directory.
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  1. 3m 57s
    1. Introduction
      1m 14s
    2. Using the exercise files
      2m 43s
  2. 32m 2s
    1. What is Unix?
      7m 27s
    2. The terminal application
      4m 23s
    3. Logging in and using the command prompt
      5m 19s
    4. Command structure
      5m 22s
    5. Kernel and shells
      5m 25s
    6. Unix manual pages
      4m 6s
  3. 15m 58s
    1. The working directory
      2m 49s
    2. Listing files and directories
      3m 59s
    3. Moving around the filesystem
      4m 58s
    4. Filesystem organization
      4m 12s
  4. 1h 4m
    1. Naming files
      5m 41s
    2. Creating files
      2m 19s
    3. Unix text editors
      6m 39s
    4. Reading files
      5m 35s
    5. Reading portions of files
      3m 27s
    6. Creating directories
      2m 40s
    7. Moving and renaming files and directories
      8m 32s
    8. Copying files and directories
      3m 7s
    9. Deleting files and directories
      3m 38s
    10. Finder aliases in Unix
      4m 10s
    11. Hard links
      5m 30s
    12. Symbolic links
      6m 36s
    13. Searching for files and directories
      6m 32s
  5. 34m 58s
    1. Who am I?
      4m 3s
    2. Unix groups
      1m 52s
    3. File and directory ownership
      6m 41s
    4. File and directory permissions
      4m 27s
    5. Setting permissions using alpha notation
      6m 49s
    6. Setting permissions using octal notation
      3m 49s
    7. The root user
      1m 57s
    8. sudo and sudoers
      5m 20s
  6. 52m 34s
    1. Command basics
      4m 4s
    2. The PATH variable
      4m 13s
    3. System information commands
      3m 40s
    4. Disk information commands
      6m 8s
    5. Viewing processes
      5m 0s
    6. Monitoring processes
      3m 36s
    7. Stopping processes
      3m 19s
    8. Text file helpers
      6m 50s
    9. Utility programs
      7m 28s
    10. Using the command history
      8m 16s
  7. 20m 39s
    1. Standard input and standard output
      1m 24s
    2. Directing output to a file
      4m 13s
    3. Appending to a file
      2m 44s
    4. Directing input from a file
      5m 28s
    5. Piping output to input
      4m 40s
    6. Suppressing output
      2m 10s
  8. 41m 28s
    1. Profile, login, and resource files
      9m 11s
    2. Setting command aliases
      6m 59s
    3. Setting and exporting environment variables
      4m 54s
    4. Setting the PATH variable
      6m 10s
    5. Configuring history with variables
      6m 17s
    6. Customizing the command prompt
      6m 5s
    7. Logout file
      1m 52s
  9. 1h 25m
    1. grep: Searching for matching expressions
      5m 21s
    2. grep: Multiple files, other input
      4m 28s
    3. grep: Coloring matched text
      2m 57s
    4. Introduction to regular expressions
      3m 22s
    5. Regular expressions: Basic syntax
      3m 19s
    6. Using regular expressions with grep
      5m 20s
    7. tr: Translating characters
      8m 17s
    8. tr: Deleting and squeezing characters
      5m 30s
    9. sed: Stream editor
      7m 45s
    10. sed: Regular expressions and back-references
      7m 8s
    11. cut: Cutting select text portions
      7m 42s
    12. diff: Comparing files
      4m 35s
    13. diff: Alternative formats
      4m 30s
    14. xargs: Passing argument lists to commands
      7m 25s
    15. xargs: Usage examples
      7m 59s
  10. 42m 25s
    1. Finder integration
      4m 45s
    2. Clipboard integration
      5m 5s
    3. Screen capture
      3m 42s
    4. Shut down, reboot, and sleep
      3m 34s
    5. Text to speech
      2m 36s
    6. Spotlight integration: Searching metadata
      3m 41s
    7. Spotlight integration: Metadata attributes
      4m 24s
    8. Using AppleScript
      5m 23s
    9. System configurations: Viewing and setting
      5m 51s
    10. System configurations: Examples
      3m 24s
  11. 1m 26s
    1. Conclusion
      1m 26s

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Unix for Mac OS X Users
6h 35m Beginner Apr 29, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Unix for Mac OS X Users unlocks the powerful capabilities of Unix that underlie Mac OS X, teaching how to use command-line syntax to perform common tasks such as file management, data entry, and text manipulation. The course teaches Unix from the ground up, starting with the basics of the command line and graduating to powerful, advanced tools like grep, sed, and xargs. The course shows how to enter commands in Terminal to create, move, copy, and delete files and folders; change file ownership and permissions; view and stop command and application processes; find and edit data within files; and use command-line shortcuts to speed up workflow. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Moving around the file system
  • Creating and reading files
  • Copying, moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories
  • Creating hard links and symbolic links
  • Understanding user identity, file ownership, and sudo
  • Setting file permissions with alpha and octal notation
  • Changing the PATH variable
  • Using the command history
  • Directing input and output
  • Configuring the Unix working environment
  • Searching and replacing using grep and regular expressions
  • Manipulating text with tr, sed, and cut
  • Integrating with the Finder, Spotlight, and AppleScript
Subjects:
Developer Web
Software:
Mac OS X Unix
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

diff: Comparing files

In this movie we're going to take a look at a Unix tool called DIFF, which is useful for comparing two files. Imagine that a client sends you revisions to a text document. You still have the original document but you can't tell where the client changed. You could put the two documents side-by- side and then scan each one looking for the differences then every time you find a difference you could take note of it. That's exactly what DIFF does for you, but much faster and with greater precision than you could. Using DIFF is easy. Notice that I am inside my user directory and inside unix_files and we're going to be working with two files that I've added to this directory.

The first one is original_file.txt, the other one is revised_file.txt. Both of these are included in the Exercise Files but they're also easy for you to create yourself. The first one just has several lines that say delete, several lines that say change, and several lines that say append. And then on the far left side I've included the line numbers for reference. The revised file has something very similar except that now I've deleted one of the lines that says delete, changed one of the lines that says change, and appended a line to the section of lines that say append.

Now what we want to do is ask DIFF to compare these two files and report the differences between them. We do that with diff and then as the two arguments we pass in the two filenames we want to compare. Typically, you want to put the old or original file on the left. You don't have to but that's sort of typical. original_file.txt revised_file.txt. DIFF compares the two files and reports the changes to us. Now the way that it reports those changes might seem a little cryptic at first. So let's understand what it's telling us. It found three changes altogether.

The first change is represented by these two lines. The d in the first line is letting it know that it detected a deletion. Something was deleted. The numbers on either side of the d let us know the line number where this would occur in each of the two files. The number on the left corresponds to the file that was passed in on the left, the first argument. The number on the right of corresponds to what I call the right file. That's the second argument. Notice also then that it tells us the text what was deleted and it has an angle bracket at the beginning that's acting as an arrow letting us know that this occurs in the left file, original file.

Second change that it found is described by these four lines. Now instead of a d we have a c letting us know that there was a change. Once again, we have the line numbers and you can see why it's useful to have those line numbers. Because the position of these two lines, even though they're being compared, it's changed. And if we had a lot of deletions, it might have changed a lot. This line might have jumped up a hundred lines in the file. Having the line number helps us to be able to locate the change regardless of what else has happened. Notice now instead of one line, it gives us two lines with dashes in between the two and the first one has an arrow pointing to the left letting us know that this is the text as it exists in the left file, and then we have an arrow pointing to the right thing, letting us know that this is the text as it exists in the right file.

And then last of all, we have append which uses an a. So we have d, c, and a. Once again, it tells us the line numbers. Don't let it throw you. This says 11 and this says 12. That's because we deleted line 2. The arrow this time points to the right letting us know that this is the text that exist in the right file. So deletes will always point to the left, appends will always point to the right, and changes will always have arrows that point in each direction and show us the text from both. So even though it may have seemed cryptic at first, once we understand how to read it, it's actually a very efficient way to describe the changes.

There are a number of other formats that we can output these results in. This is just the default one. We'll take a look at those but before we do that, let's take a look at some of the options that we can pass to DIFF for how it goes about comparing the two files. If we give DIFF the i option, then it performs a case insensitive comparison. A capital A and a lowercase a would be considered exactly the same. It would not bother reporting that difference to us. If we want it to ignore changes to the blank characters like Space and Tab or all of the white space or the number of blank lines that are in the file, well, then we could use the b, w, or capital B options.

DIFF doesn't just compare files. It'll actually compare whole directories of files. We can use the lowercase r option to recursively compare two directories. So then it will look for files that have the same name in each of those two directories and tell us what the differences are going down each and every one of those files. Now if two of those files are identical, it won't report it. It'll just ignore it and just tell us about the ones that actually have differences. If we also want it to tell us about the files that are identical, we have to use the s option. These are the primary options for controlling how DIFF does this comparison but there are a few others and you can read the Man Pages to see what those are.

But these are the most common ones.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Unix for Mac OS X Users.


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Q: The exercise files for the following movies appear to be broken:
07_02_files
07_03_files
07_04_files
07_05_files
08_03_files

Is there something wrong with them?
These exercises include one or more "dot files", whose file names start with a period. These files are normally hidden from view by the Finder.  So that they would show up in the Finder, the period has been removed from the file names. Additionally, "_example" has been added at the end of the file name to make it clear that the file will not work as-is. To make the dot files usable, either:

1) Open the file in a text editor to view its contents. Note that it may not be possible to double-click the file to open it because there is no file extension (such as .txt).
2) Resave the file under a new name (usually by choosing File > Save As), adding a "." to the beginning of the file name and removing "_example" from the end.

OR

1) Copy and rename the file from the Unix command line using the techniques discussed in this course. Rename the file by adding a "." to the start and removing "_example" from the end. Include the "-i" option to prevent overwriting an existing file unexpectedly.
Example:  cp -i ~/Desktop/Exercise\ Files/Chapter_07/07_02_files/bashrc_example ~/.bashrc
 
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