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Creating directories

From: Unix for Mac OS X Users

Video: Creating directories

I want us to see how we can go back creating directories that we could put our files into. Directories are essentially folders, but in Unix you are always going to call them directories. So start getting use to that terminology. Instead of calling it a folder, call it a directory. Making a directory is really simple. We just say mkdir, space, and then the name of the directory we want. So I am going to create one called testdir. Hit Return and it created it. It didn't give me any output there. If I do ls-la you'll see that it created. If we come down here at the very last entry, you can see there's a directory because it has this d at the front and that differentiates it from just a standard file which has a dash.

Creating directories

I want us to see how we can go back creating directories that we could put our files into. Directories are essentially folders, but in Unix you are always going to call them directories. So start getting use to that terminology. Instead of calling it a folder, call it a directory. Making a directory is really simple. We just say mkdir, space, and then the name of the directory we want. So I am going to create one called testdir. Hit Return and it created it. It didn't give me any output there. If I do ls-la you'll see that it created. If we come down here at the very last entry, you can see there's a directory because it has this d at the front and that differentiates it from just a standard file which has a dash.

Now if you were to try it again and create the same directory again, you'll get an error letting you know that file exists. It says File exists but it's actually letting us know that the directory exists and then makes sure we don't accidentally overwrite something we don't mean to. Now, if we want to create a directory inside a directory, we can just pass in a path, mkdir testdir/test1. That will create the test1 directory inside testdir. It's just a path, nice and simple. So that will work.

What if I want to go two deep though? If we do test1/test2, now I am saying in addition to going inside the test directory I want you to create two directories. The test1 directory that doesn't exist followed by the test2 to directory that doesn't exist. This won't work. If we try this, it will come back and say, "Oops! Sorry, test1 doesn't exist." In order to make it work, we need to pass in the -p option. p is parents, the parent directories. So create all parent directories as needed until you get to the final directory that I've got.

That's very helpful if we want to create a large directory structure. We can say all right, not just this folder but also these folder is deeper down, create all of them all at once. That's nice handy trick. And if we did ls-la,and we'll type in the directory, testdir/, it will give us the contents of that directory. The other thing I think is kind of nice is the -v option. So we say mkdir -v is for verbose, let's use that p option again, testdir/test1, and let's create another one called test3 that will sit right next to test2.

So there you see it gives me some feedback and lets me know which directories it created. If it created four directories, we would have four entries there, telling us each one that it created. So that's really all to creating directories. Just make sure that you create a directory with the name that doesn't already exist and if you can pass in a full path to the directory that you want, but if some of those directories in that path don't already exist, you will want to also pass in the -p options so it will create them as well.

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Unix for Mac OS X Users

82 video lessons · 25609 viewers

Kevin Skoglund
Author

 
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  1. 3m 57s
    1. Introduction
      1m 14s
    2. Using the exercise files
      2m 43s
  2. 32m 2s
    1. What is Unix?
      7m 27s
    2. The terminal application
      4m 23s
    3. Logging in and using the command prompt
      5m 19s
    4. Command structure
      5m 22s
    5. Kernel and shells
      5m 25s
    6. Unix manual pages
      4m 6s
  3. 15m 58s
    1. The working directory
      2m 49s
    2. Listing files and directories
      3m 59s
    3. Moving around the filesystem
      4m 58s
    4. Filesystem organization
      4m 12s
  4. 1h 4m
    1. Naming files
      5m 41s
    2. Creating files
      2m 19s
    3. Unix text editors
      6m 39s
    4. Reading files
      5m 35s
    5. Reading portions of files
      3m 27s
    6. Creating directories
      2m 40s
    7. Moving and renaming files and directories
      8m 32s
    8. Copying files and directories
      3m 7s
    9. Deleting files and directories
      3m 38s
    10. Finder aliases in Unix
      4m 10s
    11. Hard links
      5m 30s
    12. Symbolic links
      6m 36s
    13. Searching for files and directories
      6m 32s
  5. 34m 58s
    1. Who am I?
      4m 3s
    2. Unix groups
      1m 52s
    3. File and directory ownership
      6m 41s
    4. File and directory permissions
      4m 27s
    5. Setting permissions using alpha notation
      6m 49s
    6. Setting permissions using octal notation
      3m 49s
    7. The root user
      1m 57s
    8. sudo and sudoers
      5m 20s
  6. 52m 34s
    1. Command basics
      4m 4s
    2. The PATH variable
      4m 13s
    3. System information commands
      3m 40s
    4. Disk information commands
      6m 8s
    5. Viewing processes
      5m 0s
    6. Monitoring processes
      3m 36s
    7. Stopping processes
      3m 19s
    8. Text file helpers
      6m 50s
    9. Utility programs
      7m 28s
    10. Using the command history
      8m 16s
  7. 20m 39s
    1. Standard input and standard output
      1m 24s
    2. Directing output to a file
      4m 13s
    3. Appending to a file
      2m 44s
    4. Directing input from a file
      5m 28s
    5. Piping output to input
      4m 40s
    6. Suppressing output
      2m 10s
  8. 41m 28s
    1. Profile, login, and resource files
      9m 11s
    2. Setting command aliases
      6m 59s
    3. Setting and exporting environment variables
      4m 54s
    4. Setting the PATH variable
      6m 10s
    5. Configuring history with variables
      6m 17s
    6. Customizing the command prompt
      6m 5s
    7. Logout file
      1m 52s
  9. 1h 25m
    1. grep: Searching for matching expressions
      5m 21s
    2. grep: Multiple files, other input
      4m 28s
    3. grep: Coloring matched text
      2m 57s
    4. Introduction to regular expressions
      3m 22s
    5. Regular expressions: Basic syntax
      3m 19s
    6. Using regular expressions with grep
      5m 20s
    7. tr: Translating characters
      8m 17s
    8. tr: Deleting and squeezing characters
      5m 30s
    9. sed: Stream editor
      7m 45s
    10. sed: Regular expressions and back-references
      7m 8s
    11. cut: Cutting select text portions
      7m 42s
    12. diff: Comparing files
      4m 35s
    13. diff: Alternative formats
      4m 30s
    14. xargs: Passing argument lists to commands
      7m 25s
    15. xargs: Usage examples
      7m 59s
  10. 42m 25s
    1. Finder integration
      4m 45s
    2. Clipboard integration
      5m 5s
    3. Screen capture
      3m 42s
    4. Shut down, reboot, and sleep
      3m 34s
    5. Text to speech
      2m 36s
    6. Spotlight integration: Searching metadata
      3m 41s
    7. Spotlight integration: Metadata attributes
      4m 24s
    8. Using AppleScript
      5m 23s
    9. System configurations: Viewing and setting
      5m 51s
    10. System configurations: Examples
      3m 24s
  11. 1m 26s
    1. Conclusion
      1m 26s

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