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Let's take a look at how we can shape the sound further with the Modulation envelope and the Volume envelope. The Volume envelope is very similar to what we've seen so far in the other synthesizers, such as ES 1 and ES P. It's a four-stage ADSR envelope and it's going to control the shape of the volume of the sound. So as a quick review, remember that the attack is going to be the amount of time it takes from the signal to go from absolute silence to its maximum volume. So right now it's set to 0, so it's instantaneous. If I give this a longer attack, the sound will fade in.
(music playing) So it takes a moment for it to take it to its full volume. Decay is the amount of time it takes, once it's reached its maximum volume, to then fade back down to either silence or at the sustain level. So for the case of this example, let's pull down Sustain. We'll have no sustain. So we've got a long decay, so this will fade out over a long period of time. So I'll make this shorter. (music playing) It's more like a pluck when we've got to the short decay like this.
(music playing) It fades out really quickly. (music playing) So now if I give this some sustain level, instead of it fading all the way down to silence, or decaying down to silence, it will decay down to my sustain level. (music playing) So my sustain level is here, somewhere in the middle. We're just going to stay at this volume as long as I'm holding the note. If I increase the sustain level -- (music playing) --you can see that it decays, but it still has a lot of amplitude.
(music playing) Release is the amount of time it takes once I've let go of the note for to fade back down to silence. So if I'm holding the note here and I let go, it takes moment to fade out. I'll give it a longer release so you can here and increase the sustain. (music playing) So I'm holding the note, and I let go. It takes a little while for it to fade down to silence. So that's a long release. Okay.
So that should all be pretty familiar. The other thing that should also be familiar is this Velocity control. This just allows us to control the volume of the sound with how hard we're playing on the keyboard. So if I play softly, I get a low volume. If I play with more force, I get a louder volume. So that's a really great way to sort of have things be dynamic. And the Main level control for the amplifier, that's just our master output level. So let's take a look at this Modulation envelope because this is actually really cool and really useful. So Modulation envelope has the same stages that are in this Volume envelope, ADSR, but they're going to be applied to the FM intensity, or the FM depth is what they call it here, and the pitch of this modulator.
So let's try it as used with this FM intensity here. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to set everything to 0 on this Modulation envelope. Let's just hear a small amount of modulation happening, so I'll play a note and I'll increase the FM intensity. Okay, so we hear what that sounds like. So let's have that be controlled by this envelope. So I'll adjust the FM depth here. So I'll give it a positive amount by turning it to the right, and I'll give it some attack. So what's going to happen is this FM depth, it's going to fade in over the period of this Attack portion.
(music playing) So you hear that fade in and then it cut off right away. So that's when it reached the decay portion, because our decay time is really short. It's just cutting off immediately. So maybe what I'll do now is try the opposite. I'll set instantaneous attack, give it some decay. So what will happen is it will jump to a higher modulation level and then it will fade back down to no modulation. (music playing) So you can hear that happening. I'll make this shorter.
(music playing) So if I want to emphasize the beginning of the sound, give it a short decay-- (music playing) And then of course, wherever my starting place is of this FM intensity control, the envelope is going to offset that. So-- (music playing) --if I'm starting with more modulation, it's going to increase from there. So that during this Decay parameter, it will open up even further and then decay back down to wherever my starting place is that's here. (music playing) So I can make this longer.
(music playing) And so the sustain portion of this envelope is going to be the place where this modulation ends up being as long, as I'm holding the note. (music playing) Now it's at the sustain portion. You can hear that it's just sort of a small amount of modulation. I can increase the sustain. (music playing) And you can hear now it's at a higher level of modulation. So let's engage these first three stages: so Attack, Decay, and Sustain.
So what's going to happen is the modulation amount will fade in over the attack period of this Modulation envelope. Then during the decay portion, the modulation amount will decrease to whatever the sustain level is. So let's hear that happen. (music playing) So you could hear those three stages happening, and now it's on the sustain. (music playing) The Release portion here is going to be once I let go of the note, it's going to be the amount of time it takes for this FM intensity to go back down to its initial setting.
(music playing) We're now at the sustain portion. I'll let go and it instantly cuts off. And the reason for that is because our Volume envelope has no Release, so I'll increase the release on our Volume envelope. And now we should hear all four stages of this modulation envelope. (music playing) And I'll let go of the note, and we can hear the modulation fades back down, as well as the volume of the sound. So that's this Modulation envelope controlling the FM depth, or FM intensity. The other thing we can actually do with that is give it a negative amount so the envelope works in the opposite direction.
So essentially what's going to happen is during the attack period, the FM amount is going to be decaying and so on and so forth. But it's worth exploring. (music playing) So check that on your own because sometimes you can get some really cool musical things happening with that. Okay, so now let's try using this Modulation envelope to control the pitch of the modulator. So I'll start with a pretty neutral setting. So what I'll do is first give this a bit of FM intensity here.
(music playing) So we need a little bit of modulation happening in order to actually hear this because with no modulation, all we're hearing is the carrier signal. So now what I'll do is give this a bit of pitch modulation. So I turn this to the right to give it a positive amount. (music playing) And then I have to engage the envelope here. So we'll give this a bit of attack and over the period of this attack stage, the pitch of the modulator will rise. So let's listen to that. (music playing) All right! So you could hear it rising and then once it hits the decay, it snaps back to the note that I'm playing. Let's give it some decay, so it will rise and then it will fall during the decay portion.
(music playing) And if I get rid of the attack and just have a decay, we'll just hear it pitched down. (music playing) Because the attack is instantaneous, so then the decay is the only thing we're hearing. (music playing) We can get an even shorter decay for a more percussive sort of tone. (music playing) And if I want it to be a further range of pitch that's happening with this envelope, I'll increase the intensity. So if I go all the way the right, that's the maximum intensity for this pitch modulation.
(music playing) That gives it definitely more of a snap to the sound. (music playing) Then I can adjust the sustain level as well of this Modulation envelope. (music playing) And then of course it has the release, which is once we let go of the note, how long it takes for the modulation to settle back down to its initial value. (music playing) In order to really hear that, we have to make sure that there is enough release happening with our Amplifier envelope or our Volume envelope.
(music playing) So you can hear, when I've let off the note, the pitch started changing. So I'm playing the note and I let go, and you can hear that Modulator pitch is changing also. Another thing to keep in mind is that this modulation envelope can control the modulator pitch and the FM depth at the same time. So let's do that. So now we've got it controlling FM depth and pitch. (music playing) So it's a little more drastic of a sound. Let's get this to a more musically useful envelope shape.
So I'm just going to do something where we've got a bit of attack and decay and release. (music playing) So that's probably too much a range of pitch, so I'll decrease that. We've got a little bit of pitch modulation and some FM depth. (music playing) And if I decrease the starting place, I think it will be more musically useful. (music playing) So you can get some interesting stuff, having it modulate both the pitch of the modulator and FM depth at the same time. (music playing) I can also invert the direction of the Modulation envelope for pitch just like we did for FM depth, so I can do that here.
So now the Pitch envelope is working in the opposite way that the Modulation envelope is working for FM depth. (music playing) So now you can get some interesting effects by exploring that. So next, let's check out the LFO, which can be used to modulate the FM intensity, or like we saw earlier, it can be used to create vibrato.
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