Foundations of Audio: Reverb
Illustration by John Hersey

Touring the interfaces for six reverb plugins


Foundations of Audio: Reverb

with Alex U. Case

Start your free trial now, and begin learning software, business and creative skills—anytime, anywhere—with video instruction from recognized industry experts.

Start Your Free Trial Now

Video: Touring the interfaces for six reverb plugins

We've talked about the anatomy of reverb drawing a distinction between the early reflections and the reverb tail that follows. And we've worked through the essential parameters of Reverb Time, pre-delay, wet/dry mix, any frequency adjustments, plus the other less precise parameters like diffusion, density, and so on. Let's review some plug-ins and see if we can stay oriented. Have patience, the fantastic capability of plug-ins today means that some of them open to a screen with many confusing at first parameters.
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 9m 41s
    1. Welcome
      1m 58s
    2. What you need to know before watching this course
      2m 18s
    3. Songs you should listen to while watching this course
      2m 46s
    4. Using the exercise files
    5. Using the Get in the Mix session files
      1m 44s
  2. 6m 44s
    1. What is reverb?
      2m 35s
    2. Why do we use reverb?
      4m 9s
  3. 24m 33s
    1. Capturing reverb acoustically through room tracks
      5m 33s
    2. Creating reverb acoustically through a reverb chamber
      2m 51s
    3. Creating reverb mechanically using springs and plates
      5m 8s
    4. Creating reverb digitally via algorithms and convolution
      4m 51s
    5. Optimizing signal flow, effects loops, and CPU resources
      6m 10s
  4. 39m 10s
    1. The anatomy of reverberation
      3m 8s
    2. Mastering reverb time, predelay, and wet/dry mix parameters
      5m 36s
    3. Understanding the frequency dependence of reverberation
      4m 56s
    4. Tapping into advanced parameters such as diffusion, density, and more
      4m 37s
    5. Reference values from the best orchestra halls
      5m 40s
    6. Hearing beyond the basic parameters
      5m 31s
    7. Touring the interfaces for six reverb plugins
      9m 42s
  5. 1h 32m
    1. Choosing the right reverb for each of your tracks
      2m 17s
    2. Simulating space with reverb
      5m 42s
    3. Hearing space in the mix
      6m 33s
    4. Timbre and texture
      3m 36s
    5. Shaping tone and timbre with reverb
      5m 49s
    6. Creating contrasting sounds for your tracks
      4m 43s
    7. Using nonlinear reverb to help a track cut through
      4m 25s
    8. Emphasizing the reverb using predelay
      3m 24s
    9. Strategically blurring and obscuring tracks
      1m 46s
    10. Get in the Mix: Changing the scene by changing reverb
      7m 37s
    11. Get in the Mix: Gating reverb to emphasize any track in your production
      5m 52s
    12. Reversing reverb to highlight musical moments
      9m 36s
    13. Synthesizing new sounds through reverb
      6m 42s
    14. Get in the Mix: Supporting a track with regenerative reverb
      6m 31s
    15. Getting the most out of room tracks
      17m 39s
  6. 11m 32s
    1. Setting up your own reverb chamber: The architecture
      2m 2s
    2. Setting up your own reverb chamber: The audio
      4m 8s
    3. Using convolution correctly
      2m 32s
    4. Getting great impluse response
      2m 50s
  7. 1m 29s
    1. Next steps
      1m 29s

please wait ...
Watch the Online Video Course Foundations of Audio: Reverb
3h 5m Appropriate for all Dec 14, 2012 Updated Jan 24, 2014

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

This installment of Foundations of Audio explains one of the most essential ingredients in audio mixing, reverb—the time it takes for sound to bounce, echo, and decay during a live performance or recording. Reverb gives a natural richness to your recordings, which is possible to reproduce. Producer and audio engineer Alex U. Case covers the acoustic, mechanical, and digital means for creating reverb, and charts the parameters (room size, density, etc.) you'll need to know to take advantage of the original recording space and enhance it in post. He then shows how to simulate reverb digitally with effects, adding timbre, texture, and contrast, and improve the sound of your mixes with a sense of space and depth.

These techniques can be practiced with the free Get in the Mix sessions, currently available for Pro Tools and Logic Pro.

Topics include:
  • What is reverb?
  • Understanding how acoustic reverb works in rooms
  • Working with the signal flow, effects loops, and available CPU resources
  • Understanding core parameters, like reverb time and pre-delay
  • Simulating space
  • Creating nonlinear reverb
  • Building pre-delay effects
  • Using reverse reverb
  • Using convolution correctly
Audio + Music
Logic Pro Pro Tools Waves
Alex U. Case

Touring the interfaces for six reverb plugins

We've talked about the anatomy of reverb drawing a distinction between the early reflections and the reverb tail that follows. And we've worked through the essential parameters of Reverb Time, pre-delay, wet/dry mix, any frequency adjustments, plus the other less precise parameters like diffusion, density, and so on. Let's review some plug-ins and see if we can stay oriented. Have patience, the fantastic capability of plug-ins today means that some of them open to a screen with many confusing at first parameters.

We look for the essentials, then we look for the bells and whistles. Let's start with D-Verb, a stock ProTools plug-in. This is an easy-to-use plug-in that lets you tweak the essential parameters and move on. As we look around, we see nothing that addresses early reflections separate from the reverb. For this plug-in, as with many others, the early reflections are still part of the sound we just can't get at them directly. It's a little bit like using a semi-parametric EQ where the algorithm takes care of the queue parameter for us.

And we just work with the frequency select and gain. Start by choosing an algorithm and a size to get things in the ballpark. Tailor it by adjusting the other parameters. So where are the key parameters? Reverb time is presented as DECAY, PRE-DELAY is just below it, the default wet/dry MIX on this plug-in is the expected 100% wet. We have two ways to get at the frequency characteristics of this reverb, HF CUT sets the frequencies above which the Reverb Time gets shorter.

The LP FILTER equalizes the entire signal dropping a low pass filter directly into the audio path. Now let's look at True Verb, a plug-in made by waves and compatible with almost all DAWs. Programs are selected by clicking the Load button and choosing the best starting point. You then refine it as desired. This reverb has two algorithms running, one associated with the reverb tail, the other generating early reflections. We get good control over both.

Reverb Time is set using the Decay Time parameter and Pre Delay is next to it. The wet/dry MIX is controlled through these three ON/Off buttons and their associated Faders. You can control the Direct sound, the Early Reflections, and the reverb tail independently. For 100% wet mute the Direct, but we adjust the Faders for early reflections in reverb to suit our needs. The frequency control in this reverb is quite comprehensive, there is reverb Damping at both low and high frequencies where you select the frequency beyond which the Reverb Time is modified, and you dial-in the ratio desired, extending the Reverb Time with a value greater than one and damping the time with a value less than one.

It's great to have this control both low and high. EQ is also provided, the parameter called Rev Shelf is a high-frequency shelving filter applied to the input signal feeding the reverb portion of the plug-in. ER Absorb is a high-frequency shelving filter applied only to the Early Reflections. The shelving frequency for both the shelf gain settings Rev Shelf and ER Absorb is set by the High Freq parameter. Low Cut introduces a high pass filter down low for the early reflections.

So the core parameters are well-represented, this reverb also offers some more subtle ways to affect the sound. Dimension drives the pattern of Early Reflections that's supposed to track with the number of dimensions in the room. We live in 3D but this reverb can build patterns of reflections that might come from one to four dimensions, whatever that might mean. Room size and distance can be adjusted to modify the spacing and level of early reflections in reverb and the Link button lets it drive the reverb Time and Pre Delay parameters for you.

This plug-in also offers a very nice visual representation of the impulse response of the whole program, Early Reflections and reverb tail. Use this visual as a guide to understanding the logic of your parameter settings but be sure to base your final decisions on how it sounds. Logic Pro contains several stock reverb plug-ins, including Platinum Verb. Platinum Verb has a short set of presets to get you going in the pulldown menu that appears as pound default. It's often good to start here, get the sound close, and then adjust the taste.

You'll see the bottom-third of the user-interface controls the reverb, the upper-left controls Early Reflections, and the upper right controls Wet/Dry Mix. Reverb Time is on the bottom-right. Pre Delay gets a modified definition here as there is the delay before reverb here called Initial Delay, and the delay before Early Reflections called Predelay. Wet/Dry Mix is controlled through two faders which control the level of the dry direct signal and the wet reverb signal.

The relative level of early reflections versus reverb is adjusted with this balance control. Frequency Control is driven by the crossover frequency, this divides the audio at this frequency, and you can push the qualities of the lower band versus the higher band in different directions. The low ratio is the familiar parameter that determines how much longer or shorter the lower side of your reverb lasts. At a 100% the low band has the same reverb Time as the upper band. At values less than a 100% your low-frequency resonance is shortened.

It can be pushed above 100% to stretch the lows out. The Low Freq Level parameter adjusts the overall level of the low-frequency portion of your reverb. It's nice to control the level independently of the reverb Time. High Cut is a low pass filter that pulls the highs out of the reverb, additional parameters like Room Shape, Spread, Density, and Diffusion dig into the details of the early reflections and the reverb tail offering variations in tone and texture well worth exploring.

Altiverb is a high-end convolution reverb made by Audio Ease and compatible with many DAWs. You began by loading an impulse response, this is the truest representation of the system possible without further processing. If you load up a cathedral you get the sound of that cathedral. Manipulating any parameters then modifies your sound from the accurate representation of the space to something that doesn't exist. It is my bias to find the best sounding impulse response and not touch it.

But if you must, you can change the reverb Time, adjust Pre Delay, and EQ and frequency damp the sound. Feel free to do whatever you wish to get the sound you want, but recognize that you're introducing processing to the impulse response that changes it from the actual measurement to one with different properties. You are creating a work of sonic fiction which is always encouraged. Ableton Live stock reverb also possesses all the parameters we'd expect. It separates early reflections neatly from the reverb engine called the Diffusion Network.

The decay time is this plug's name for reverb Time, Pre Delay is on the left. Wet/Dry Mix is on the right with two level controls above one for the Early Reflections and the other for the reverb. When using an Aux and Effects loop set it to 100% wet and adjust the levels of the reflections in the reverb called diffusion to taste. Frequency controls exist for both the Early Reflections and the reverb. The input processing has an adjustable low-cut and high-cut filter that EQs the signal coming in.

The diffusion network has adjustable high and low shelving EQs that pull those frequencies out of the reverb shortening the reverb Time beyond the frequency set. The usual culprits of size, density, shape, and scale are rather unique to this plug-in and can be explored for interesting results. Finally, let's have a quick look at reasons RV7000 reverb plug-in. Begin by loading in the desired preset, and there are lots to choose from built on several different algorithms.

Once loaded, we find the familiar set of parameters, reverb Time appears as Decay, Pre Delay is as expected. Wet/Dry Mix is done with the familiar single knob control which we generally set to 100% wet. The EQ section lets you add a low-frequency shelf plus one parametric band to further sculp the tone. The EQ process is the output of the entire reverb. Bass multipliers described as damping are available on some but not all programs.

Some programs also offer independent control of early reflections versus the reverb tail as we've seen before on other plugs. Other parameters are found depending on the algorithm you are running. So expect to explore the other parameters like diffusion, size, and similar through careful listening. The RV7000 also has a built-in gate module, the default appropriately is that the gate is off. But it's ready and waiting just a click away if you want to dial up some gated reverb without the fuss of adding more plug-ins.

Now all reverbs sound the same and not all reverbs have the same parameters. While core parameters offer expected results, plan to dig into the unique and advanced features of the reverbs available to you with a little help from the manual and a lot of critical listening.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Foundations of Audio: Reverb .

Expand all | Collapse all
please wait ...
Q: This course was updated on 4/16/2013. What changed
A: We added a bonus chapter, "Advanced Reverb Techniques," with new movies on setting up your own reverb chamber, using convolution to simulate a space, and getting great impulse responses.
Q: This course was updated on 01/24/2014. What changed?
 A: The Get in the Mix videos have been updated to the most recent version of Pro Tools. Also, the course now includes free Get in the Mix sessions for two more DAWs: Logic Pro X and Pro Tools 11.
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.

Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ .

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

* Estimated file size

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.

Mark all as unwatched Cancel


You have completed Foundations of Audio: Reverb.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.

Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member ?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any page and choose Site preferences from the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Learn more, save more. Upgrade today!

Get our Annual Premium Membership at our best savings yet.

Upgrade to our Annual Premium Membership today and get even more value from your subscription:

“In a way, I feel like you are rooting for me. Like you are really invested in my experience, and want me to get as much out of these courses as possible this is the best place to start on your journey to learning new material.”— Nadine H.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.

Sign up and receive emails about and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from

Sign up and receive emails about and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.