Viewers: in countries Watching now:
In this installment of Foundations of Audio, author Alex U. Case explains the fundamentals of delay and modulation effects and how to apply these effects, technically and creatively, to improve the sound of a mix. The course covers adjusting individual parameters such as delay time, level, and feedback; working with long delays to create echoes, enhance groove, and add support; using delay modulation for chorus and doubling effects; and dialing-in spectral effects from delay, such as flanging. This course also includes Get in the Mix (GITM) sessions for both Avid Pro Tools and Apple Logic Pro. Exercise files are also included with the course.
Multi-track mixing combines all the tracks you have into a stereo signal. Really two different signals; one intended for the left loudspeaker and the other for the right. You go from several tracks to two, but a curious thing happens when two similar signals are combined. To illustrate this important concept, let's take a look at a few simple sine waves; we'll extend the concept to more musical signals before we're done. If we combine these two sine waves, mix them together, the resulting signal is simply the same frequency sine wave doubled in amplitude.
Each of the two sine waves we're mixing is the same frequency and they're perfectly aligned, moving up and down sinusoidally together. Their interaction is perfectly additive. This is known as constructive interference. But let's change the second wave, sliding it to the right along the time axis by half a cycle. If we combine these two sine waves, the resulting signal is silence. These two waves are pushing and pulling against each other. At every instant one wave is doing the opposite of the other. They are the same frequency, but they're exactly misaligned.
Their interaction is perfectly subtractive. This synchronized form of opposition is called destructive interference. It took a shift to the right down the time axis to make this happen. So not surprisingly, this conversation is about delay. When we mix together any signal with a short delay of itself, constructive and destructive interference will occur. That short delay will align some frequencies for constructive interference and misalign others for destructive interference. Some frequencies get louder, others cancel out, leading to a frequency response curve known as comb filtering.
We see here the frequency footprint of a short delay, and it's a deep footprint, having strong spectral impact. It's called comb filtering exactly because of this image; the frequency response gets chopped up into this pattern, which looks very much like the teeth of a comb. Because of constructive and destructive interference, mixing in a short delay will alter the tone of any track into this pattern of peaks and dips. Some frequencies are enhanced, others are attenuated. In the next few videos we'll take advantage of this to create some really interesting effects, all built on the short delay.
Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Foundations of Audio: Delay and Modulation .
Here are the FAQs that matched your search "" :
Sorry, there are no matches for your search "" —to search again, type in another word or phrase and click search.
Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.
Search within course videos and transcripts, and jump right to the results.
Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.
Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.
Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.