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What is inheritance?

From: Foundations of Programming: Object-Oriented Design

Video: What is inheritance?

This next idea of Inheritance is first a great form of code reuse. We can create a new class, but instead of writing it from scratch, we can base it on an existing class. So let's say you start off by defining in your application a Person class with a few attributes--name and address and phone number, and perhaps some simple behavior in it--and then later on you figure out your application will need another class, and this one called Customer. But you realize as you are writing it that this new Customer class is exactly the same as the Person class, and the only difference is it also has a customerNumber.

What is inheritance?

This next idea of Inheritance is first a great form of code reuse. We can create a new class, but instead of writing it from scratch, we can base it on an existing class. So let's say you start off by defining in your application a Person class with a few attributes--name and address and phone number, and perhaps some simple behavior in it--and then later on you figure out your application will need another class, and this one called Customer. But you realize as you are writing it that this new Customer class is exactly the same as the Person class, and the only difference is it also has a customerNumber.

Now, you didn't want to add that customer number to your Person class, because we're trying to use abstraction. We're trying to only focus on the essentials, and not all of your Person objects will be customers. Now, you could do this by creating a completely separate class, but in an Object-Oriented language, a better way is that we'll create a new class called Customer, and then we say we are going to inherit from the Person class. The phrase we use is Customer inherits from Person, and that means our new Customer class automatically has everything that the Person class has--all its attributes, all its behaviors-- without us having to write any code.

And we just say in our Customer class what we want to add to it, in this case, we would add a customerNumber or another new attribute or add a new method. Now, by convention, if I'm drawing a diagram of Inheritance, I'll use this style of arrow to show it. Now, that's not super important right now. We will get into the diagrams later. But it is just a way of quickly showing that there is a relationship between these two classes and what that relationship is. Now, the term that's most commonly used for this relationship is that the Person class is the Superclass, whereas the new customer class is called the Subclass.

We can also hear this described as the Parent class and the Child class. Now, not only that, but we're not just limited to one of these. We could then create another new class, in this case called Employee, and also inherit from the Person class so that the new Employee class will automatically have everything that the Person class had, but it might add, say, employee ID or a pay grade and perhaps some different behavior. So now, when we're creating objects, we could choose to make Person objects or Customer objects or Employee objects, and the great thing is if I make a change in the Person class, it will automatically filter down and affect the two subclasses.

Now, a few languages like C++ allow you to inherit from more than one Superclass, and they would bring in attributes and behaviors from multiple other classes. This is what's referred to as Multiple Inheritance. But that can get confusing, and it's much more common that even when you're doing inheritance, you only inherit from one Superclass. You have one parent, single inheritance. And that's what's enforced by Java, C#, Objective-C, Ruby, and that's what we'll be using here.

Now, we'll see more about Inheritance later, and I'll show some techniques for when it's best to use it. But one of the best things about Inheritance is not just the time you save in being able to reuse code, but it's what allows us to use the last of our four key terms, Polymorphism.

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This video is part of

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Foundations of Programming: Object-Oriented Design

47 video lessons · 49429 viewers

Simon Allardice
Author

 
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  1. 11m 35s
    1. Welcome
      1m 25s
    2. Who this course is for
      1m 15s
    3. What to expect from this course
      3m 6s
    4. Exploring object-oriented analysis, design, and development
      1m 41s
    5. Reviewing software development methodologies
      4m 8s
  2. 26m 14s
    1. Why we use object-orientation
      2m 42s
    2. What is an object?
      5m 22s
    3. What is a class?
      4m 43s
    4. What is abstraction?
      2m 45s
    5. What is encapsulation?
      3m 45s
    6. What is inheritance?
      3m 35s
    7. What is polymorphism?
      3m 22s
  3. 12m 16s
    1. Understanding the object-oriented analysis and design processes
      4m 13s
    2. Defining requirements
      6m 9s
    3. Introduction to the Unified Modeling Language (UML)
      1m 54s
  4. 23m 35s
    1. Understanding use cases
      6m 11s
    2. Identifying the actors
      4m 16s
    3. Identifying the scenarios
      5m 7s
    4. Diagramming use cases
      4m 18s
    5. Employing user stories
      3m 43s
  5. 16m 36s
    1. Creating a conceptual model
      1m 59s
    2. Identifying the classes
      2m 27s
    3. Identifying class relationships
      2m 38s
    4. Identifying class responsibilities
      6m 43s
    5. Using CRC cards
      2m 49s
  6. 22m 25s
    1. Creating class diagrams
      6m 11s
    2. Converting class diagrams to code
      4m 57s
    3. Exploring object lifetime
      5m 55s
    4. Using static or shared members
      5m 22s
  7. 19m 49s
    1. Identifying inheritance situations
      6m 49s
    2. Using inheritance
      2m 43s
    3. Using abstract classes
      2m 2s
    4. Using interfaces
      4m 20s
    5. Using aggregation and composition
      3m 55s
  8. 9m 23s
    1. Creating sequence diagrams
      5m 18s
    2. Working with advanced UML diagrams
      2m 3s
    3. Using UML tools
      2m 2s
  9. 10m 39s
    1. Introduction to design patterns
      2m 40s
    2. Example: the singleton pattern
      4m 53s
    3. Example: the memento pattern
      3m 6s
  10. 21m 47s
    1. Introduction to object-oriented design principles
      2m 50s
    2. Exploring general development principles
      3m 55s
    3. Introduction to SOLID principles
      6m 43s
    4. Introduction to GRASP principles
      8m 19s
  11. 7m 1s
    1. Reviewing feature support across different object-oriented languages
      3m 50s
    2. Additional resources
      2m 27s
    3. Goodbye
      44s

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