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What is JDBC?

From: Java Database Integration with JDBC

Video: What is JDBC?

In this video series, I describe how to integrate applications built with the Java programming language with relational databases using JDBC, and I'm going to start by describing the nature and history of JDBC and how it fits into the larger Java World. JDBC is an API, a set of interfaces and classes that let you easily connect to relational databases, such as Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, and many others. It was originally known as Java Database Connectivity, but more recently it's been known by simply the acronym JDBC.

What is JDBC?

In this video series, I describe how to integrate applications built with the Java programming language with relational databases using JDBC, and I'm going to start by describing the nature and history of JDBC and how it fits into the larger Java World. JDBC is an API, a set of interfaces and classes that let you easily connect to relational databases, such as Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, and many others. It was originally known as Java Database Connectivity, but more recently it's been known by simply the acronym JDBC.

JDBC was introduced into the Java programming language very early. It was included in JDK1.1 in 1997, and has been a part of all releases of Java Standard Edition ever since. The history of JDBC is a history of added features and improved performance. The original release in 1997 included the main classes and interfaces that you'll find yourself using all the time, including the Connection interface which lets you make your initial connection to a database, the Statement which encapsulate SQL code, and ResultSet which returns data from the server.

Later versions of JDBC improved the features of the API, including the ability to update your data without SQL, improved performance, pooled connections, scrolling, and more data types. More recent releases have included more data types, the ability to work with stored procedures, and the ability to get metadata, or lists of tables and column information, from your database. In the most recent versions of Java, JDBC 4.0 was released with Java 6, and it included the ability to load drivers automatically.

I'll describe the benefit of this feature in an early video of this series. And in the most recent version of JDBC, JDBC 4.1 which is included in Java 7, there are features that let you reduce the amount of code it takes to work with your databases. So who uses JDBC? It's most commonly used in web-based applications that are hosted in JEE or Java Enterprise Edition servers. These include J Boss, Tomcat, WebSphere, and others. Developers also commonly use JDBC when they're working on desktop applications or applets that are working either with local databases stored on the client computer or with remote databases accessed over the Internet.

Less common uses include JDBC in Android applications. Android has its own API for working with local databases, specifically SQLite, and so developers typically don't use JDBC there. And when you're working with larger databases making calls from Android applications, it's more common to make calls to those databases through web services hosted by middleware servers. But if you're a Java programmer, it is important to understand what JDBC is and how it works, because even if you're working through Android or through web services, someone somewhere is probably using JDBC somewhere in your calling chain, and it's useful to know how it works.

There are other ways of getting to databases without doing direct JDBC programming. There are higher-level abstractions that are delivered as part of the large application frameworks. For example, the Spring application framework includes something called JDBC Template. It simplifies the amount of code you have to write, but in the background it's using JDBC to talk to the database. There's a similar but perhaps less popular templating library called RIFE, which does basically the same thing. And then there are data mapping APIs, the most popular is Hibernate.

Hibernate is something called an object-relational mapping API. It represents your database structure with Java classes and objects. In the background it's still using JDBC to communicate with the database, but it simplifies the amount of code you have to write in your own application. And there are other mapping libraries, such as iBATIS from Apache, and the Java Persistence API or JPA, which is actually a part of the Java EE platform. Again, regardless of whether you use JDBC directly, or you use one of these higher-level application frameworks or data mapping APIs in the background, JDBC is at work.

So by working through this video series, you'll be able to gain a greater understanding of how the Java programming language connects to databases and what are some of the pitfalls and benefits of using JDBC.

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This video is part of

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Java Database Integration with JDBC

32 video lessons · 6348 viewers

David Gassner
Author

 
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  1. 5m 23s
    1. Welcome
      53s
    2. What you should know before starting this course
      1m 20s
    3. Using the exercise files
      3m 10s
  2. 12m 2s
    1. Testing your Java development environment
      5m 14s
    2. Importing a MySQL database
      5m 1s
    3. Creating a database user in MySQL
      1m 47s
  3. 32m 47s
    1. What is JDBC?
      4m 26s
    2. Choosing a JDBC driver
      6m 46s
    3. Connecting to a MySQL database server
      8m 7s
    4. Connecting to a HyperSQL database file
      6m 23s
    5. Executing a static SQL statement
      7m 5s
  4. 17m 42s
    1. Connecting to multiple databases
      6m 24s
    2. Handling JDBC exceptions
      7m 7s
    3. Closing database resources in Java 7
      4m 11s
  5. 47m 25s
    1. Looping through result sets
      8m 23s
    2. Moving the cursor in scrollable result sets
      5m 51s
    3. Limiting the number of fetched rows
      6m 57s
    4. Filtering data with prepared statements
      6m 58s
    5. Calling stored procedures
      5m 48s
    6. Handling multiple values from stored procedures
      5m 54s
    7. Using generic getter methods in Java SE 7
      7m 34s
  6. 45m 23s
    1. Managing data entities with JavaBean classes
      5m 0s
    2. Retrieving a single row as a JavaBean object
      6m 5s
    3. Inserting rows with prepared statements
      8m 2s
    4. Updating rows with prepared statements
      5m 4s
    5. Deleting rows with prepared statements
      4m 9s
    6. Managing data with updatable result sets
      6m 6s
    7. Using a persistent database connection
      6m 43s
    8. Committing and rolling back transactions
      4m 14s
  7. 9m 35s
    1. Getting the DatabaseMetaData object
      3m 40s
    2. Getting column and data type information
      5m 55s
  8. 50s
    1. Next steps
      50s

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