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Reviewing software development methodologies

From: Foundations of Programming: Object-Oriented Design

Video: Reviewing software development methodologies

It's a common question from people new to programming. Is there one process, one roadmap, one predefined template that will take me through all the necessary steps from start to finish, to make a piece of software? And no, there isn't one process. There are many that promise to help you do just that. These are just a few of the formal software development methodologies. Now why so many? Well, first and most simply, because software development isn't one thing.

Reviewing software development methodologies

It's a common question from people new to programming. Is there one process, one roadmap, one predefined template that will take me through all the necessary steps from start to finish, to make a piece of software? And no, there isn't one process. There are many that promise to help you do just that. These are just a few of the formal software development methodologies. Now why so many? Well, first and most simply, because software development isn't one thing.

If I want to build a quiz application for my iPhone, that requires one level of thought. One style of planning. But if I want to build an international banking system, or a safety monitoring system for a nuclear reactor, that's something quite different. So some of these are quite loose and formal, and some are very formal, detailing every aspect of what's called the software development lifecycle. Including project management and people management, budgeting, documentation requirements, down to how many meetings you should have and how often those meetings should occur.

But this is not what we are doing in this course. What we are doing here is part of these. It would work with any software development process, formal or informal. We are working on the part where we understand our problem and design a solution. Not on budgeting, not on personnel. An object-oriented design will tell you what classes to write, it won't tell you how many people your team should have. It won't tell you what platform to build this on. It won't estimate how long this project should take, but it can help you figure these things out if you need to.

Now if you work in an organization, you may have one of these formal methodologies already in place, or something that's been developed in-house and unique to your company, or something loose and informal, or no process at all. I am not expecting any particular methodology. The one assumption I am going to make is that we are using an Agile Iterative approach to developing software, as opposed to a Waterfall approach. Now if those terms are new to you, let me briefly explain. In the first decades of software development, and even when I started programming, it was usual to have what was referred to as a Waterfall approach, a strict linear plan with several distinct steps.

You go through these methodology step by step, completely finishing each step, getting signed off and moving on to the next one. Sounds like a good approach. Just one problem. It doesn't work. The moment you get to implementation to writing code you are going to hit problems you didn't think off. You are going to get new requirements that will make whatever you wrote in the first phase seem like a joke. Your customer is going to change their mind, you are going to change your mind. So this kind of approach might work for building a suspension bridge.

It doesn't work very well for software. Software development needs to be responsive. We need to add new features, we need to fix bugs, we need to support continual development. That's continual programming, supported by continual analysis and design. So instead, we use an Iterative or Agile approach. We imagine that any development will involve several incremental cycles, iterations, each including analysis, design, and programming.

These are measured in weeks, not months, and that we will move through these multiple times. Now this is a much more effective approach for most projects, and it's a great one for us, and that we don't have to know everything upfront. We don't need to create a perfect analysis and design. In fact, we expect our initial iterations to be inaccurate and incomplete, and we will improve them as we go. Now if you think your first object- oriented design is perfect, it's either very small, or you probably spent too long in it.

It's not meant to be perfect, it's meant to be good enough, and that's our focus in this course. Just enough design to let us move forward successfully.

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This video is part of

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Foundations of Programming: Object-Oriented Design

47 video lessons · 48180 viewers

Simon Allardice
Author

 
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  1. 11m 35s
    1. Welcome
      1m 25s
    2. Who this course is for
      1m 15s
    3. What to expect from this course
      3m 6s
    4. Exploring object-oriented analysis, design, and development
      1m 41s
    5. Reviewing software development methodologies
      4m 8s
  2. 26m 14s
    1. Why we use object-orientation
      2m 42s
    2. What is an object?
      5m 22s
    3. What is a class?
      4m 43s
    4. What is abstraction?
      2m 45s
    5. What is encapsulation?
      3m 45s
    6. What is inheritance?
      3m 35s
    7. What is polymorphism?
      3m 22s
  3. 12m 16s
    1. Understanding the object-oriented analysis and design processes
      4m 13s
    2. Defining requirements
      6m 9s
    3. Introduction to the Unified Modeling Language (UML)
      1m 54s
  4. 23m 35s
    1. Understanding use cases
      6m 11s
    2. Identifying the actors
      4m 16s
    3. Identifying the scenarios
      5m 7s
    4. Diagramming use cases
      4m 18s
    5. Employing user stories
      3m 43s
  5. 16m 36s
    1. Creating a conceptual model
      1m 59s
    2. Identifying the classes
      2m 27s
    3. Identifying class relationships
      2m 38s
    4. Identifying class responsibilities
      6m 43s
    5. Using CRC cards
      2m 49s
  6. 22m 25s
    1. Creating class diagrams
      6m 11s
    2. Converting class diagrams to code
      4m 57s
    3. Exploring object lifetime
      5m 55s
    4. Using static or shared members
      5m 22s
  7. 19m 49s
    1. Identifying inheritance situations
      6m 49s
    2. Using inheritance
      2m 43s
    3. Using abstract classes
      2m 2s
    4. Using interfaces
      4m 20s
    5. Using aggregation and composition
      3m 55s
  8. 9m 23s
    1. Creating sequence diagrams
      5m 18s
    2. Working with advanced UML diagrams
      2m 3s
    3. Using UML tools
      2m 2s
  9. 10m 39s
    1. Introduction to design patterns
      2m 40s
    2. Example: the singleton pattern
      4m 53s
    3. Example: the memento pattern
      3m 6s
  10. 21m 47s
    1. Introduction to object-oriented design principles
      2m 50s
    2. Exploring general development principles
      3m 55s
    3. Introduction to SOLID principles
      6m 43s
    4. Introduction to GRASP principles
      8m 19s
  11. 7m 1s
    1. Reviewing feature support across different object-oriented languages
      3m 50s
    2. Additional resources
      2m 27s
    3. Goodbye
      44s

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