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So we have looked at the first-line indent, now let's look at the left-indent and also the right-indent. Beginning over here on the left-hand side of the page, we have a very simple example of the left-indent being used to establish hierarchy in a table of contents, where we have the first-level head in bold, second-level head same size but not bold, third-level head left-indented by 10 points, which is one em space because that's a size of the type, and then the fourth-level head indented by twice the amount, and that very effectively, very easily establishes the hierarchy in that table of contents.
A very similar example and another common usage of the left-indent is when type-setting indexes, and we can see here that the second-level entries have all been indented. Another usage of the left-indent is when typesetting place and here on the left-hand side we can see that we have used a left-indent to move everything to the right of the character's name over and flushed that text. This is what's called a Hanging Indent. If I turn on my Guides and Hidden Characters, we can see that we have a tab stop entered after each of the character's names and the text is all aligning at this point.
So how do we create that? Well, over here I have the starting point, I'm going to select all of that text. I'll start out by indenting it, and I'm going to indent it, in this case by 50 points. That's going to move everything over to the left. Now I'm going to come to the first line indent, and I'm going to make that -50 points, that's going to move the first lines back so that they are flush with the left-hand edge of text frame. Now to move the first word after the character, over to that 50 point mark all I need to do is insert a Tab Stop and the Tab Stop automatically goes to the left-indent point, so that we have left-indent used in conjunction with a first-line indent to make a Hanging Indent.
In a very similar vein, we have what's called an outdent where the first-line begins flush at the left-hand edge of the text frame and all subsequent lines are indented. So this is achieved in the same way as the previous example, but without the usage of the tab we indent everything to a given point, and then we make the first-line indent negative that amount. And you see this used in bibliographies you also see it used in dictionary entries. In this example--incidentally an excerpt from my M.A. History thesis, which was a real cracker-- we have a quoted passage that is indented on the left and right and common convention is that you indent left and right the same amount, and that you make the indented text a point or two smaller than the regular size of the text.
So in this case, this is nine points and the regular text is 10 points. But we have the indent set to same value as the first-line indent clearly differentiating this text which also has to further differentiate it a modest amount of paragraph spacing before and after. And one last example, and this combines left and right indent together. When you're working on some sort of title treatment, you may find it occasionally necessary to indent on both the left and the right, and that's what I have done here.
We turn on the Guides, we can see that I have drawn a guide to indicate the left-edge on the right-edge of the 1000, and then I have indented this passage to that point, and I have done that just by eye, so I'm nudging up these values or nudging down these values so that the text aligns exactly on that guide, both the left and the right. So there we have several uses of the left-indent and right-indent.
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