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Working with justified type


From:

InDesign Typography

with Nigel French

Video: Working with justified type

Working with justified text, the challenge is how do we make sure that the spaces between the words is as even as possible? And what I have here are two examples. On the left we have Standard Justification settings, and on the right we have Custom Justification settings. So firstly, let me say that if you are going to justify your text, you need to make sure that your column measure is appropriate, i.e., you need to have enough characters per line so that you have enough words per line so that you have enough word spaces within which that variation can take place and hopefully be as imperceptible to your reader as possible. What's the right column measure? Well, different people have different standards, and this can depend upon what sort of typography you are working with, are you working with a magazine or a newspaper or a scholarly journal? But typically speaking, you hear numbers like it should be two alphabets per line, so that's 52 characters.
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  1. 4m 4s
    1. Welcome
      55s
    2. Using the exercise files
      51s
    3. Customizing the workspace for type
      2m 18s
  2. 9m 25s
    1. What is Typekit? (CC 2014.1)
      1m 56s
    2. Choosing and syncing fonts (CC 2014.1)
      3m 6s
    3. Syncing problems (CC 2014.1)
      1m 43s
    4. Typekit resources (CC 2014.1)
      1m 5s
    5. Using the Font menu (CC 2014.1)
      1m 35s
  3. 55m 41s
    1. Working with text frames
      8m 26s
    2. Using a primary text frame (CS6 and later)
      3m 59s
    3. Understanding text flow methods
      6m 25s
    4. Understanding text threads
      3m 40s
    5. Understanding Smart Text Reflow
      2m 27s
    6. Mocking up pages with placeholder text
      5m 47s
    7. Placing multiple text files
      3m 50s
    8. Using Auto-Size text frames (CS6 and later)
      4m 1s
    9. Copying and pasting vs. placing
      2m 25s
    10. Cleaning up text with Find/Change
      5m 46s
    11. Using the Story Editor
      3m 41s
    12. Spanning columns
      5m 14s
  4. 48m 34s
    1. Choosing your type
      6m 46s
    2. Understanding text essentials
      6m 37s
    3. Scaling type
      2m 27s
    4. Using italic and oblique type
      4m 33s
    5. Working with condensed and extended type
      4m 26s
    6. Setting type in all caps
      3m 46s
    7. Setting type in small caps
      4m 21s
    8. Underlining type
      4m 11s
    9. Using superscript and subscript
      4m 35s
    10. Applying baseline shift
      4m 8s
    11. Combining typefaces (CC 2014.1)
      2m 44s
  5. 16m 6s
    1. Understanding type anatomy
      3m 25s
    2. Exploring serif and sans serif
      2m 48s
    3. Comparing points, picas, and ems
      8m 34s
    4. What's in a name?
      1m 19s
  6. 16m 27s
    1. Setting leading
      4m 56s
    2. Avoiding auto-leading
      4m 12s
    3. Leading shortcuts and preferences
      4m 7s
    4. Using autoleading with inline graphics
      3m 12s
  7. 21m 25s
    1. Defining kerning and tracking
      2m 5s
    2. Understanding kerning methods
      5m 10s
    3. When and how to kern
      5m 53s
    4. When and how to track
      8m 17s
  8. 48m 42s
    1. Working with quotes, primes, and apostrophes
      8m 16s
    2. Using dashes
      5m 24s
    3. Using ellipses
      2m 56s
    4. Working with accents and special characters
      4m 1s
    5. Using space characters
      4m 15s
    6. Working with ligatures
      4m 29s
    7. Setting fractions
      3m 56s
    8. Using lining and proportional numerals
      2m 49s
    9. Using alternates, swashes, and ornaments
      5m 2s
    10. Working with optical sizes
      4m 40s
    11. Stylistic sets (CC 2014.1)
      2m 54s
  9. 57m 20s
    1. Understanding alignment
      3m 47s
    2. Working with left-aligned type
      3m 24s
    3. Working with justified type
      7m 5s
    4. Using Optical Margin Alignment
      3m 39s
    5. Determining column width
      4m 53s
    6. Working with center alignment
      5m 36s
    7. Working with right alignment
      1m 22s
    8. Aligning to or away from the spine
      1m 50s
    9. Understanding the Paragraph Composer and Single-line Composer
      3m 44s
    10. Combining alignments
      9m 20s
    11. Using hanging punctuation
      2m 13s
    12. Working with vertical alignment
      10m 27s
  10. 14m 9s
    1. Using first-line indents
      2m 26s
    2. Using indent alternatives
      2m 3s
    3. Working with left and right indents
      4m 0s
    4. Using last-line indents and outdents
      1m 26s
    5. Using paragraph spacing
      4m 14s
  11. 23m 19s
    1. Setting hyphenation
      6m 14s
    2. Working with line breaks and discretionary hyphens
      4m 48s
    3. Balancing ragged lines
      1m 36s
    4. Using the No Break feature and non-breaking characters
      2m 52s
    5. Using frame, column, and page breaks
      3m 42s
    6. Defining Keep Options
      4m 7s
  12. 37m 53s
    1. Understanding tabs
      8m 58s
    2. Considerations for table text
      3m 55s
    3. Table tips and tricks
      11m 55s
    4. Creating a bulleted list
      6m 50s
    5. Creating a numbered list
      3m 46s
    6. Creating a multi-level numbered list
      2m 29s
  13. 23m 12s
    1. Understanding drop caps
      11m 3s
    2. Navigating tricky drop caps
      5m 14s
    3. Using a nested character style with a drop cap
      3m 59s
    4. Other uses of drop caps
      2m 56s
  14. 1h 11m
    1. Understanding paragraph and character styles
      7m 13s
    2. Creating, applying, and editing styles
      7m 3s
    3. Removing overrides
      4m 58s
    4. Creating and applying character styles
      5m 4s
    5. Creating and applying nested styles
      12m 30s
    6. Using GREP styles (regular expressions)
      4m 8s
    7. Creating and applying sequential styles
      6m 19s
    8. Using paragraph rules creatively
      11m 48s
    9. Mapping Word styles
      6m 12s
    10. Working with anchored objects and object styles
      6m 24s
  15. 25m 30s
    1. Applying a text wrap
      6m 7s
    2. Making items ignore a text wrap
      1m 46s
    3. Using text wraps for flexible layouts
      3m 2s
    4. Working with difficult text wraps
      8m 39s
    5. Inverting text wraps
      2m 7s
    6. Setting text wrap preferences
      3m 49s
  16. 29m 33s
    1. Choosing a page size and setting margins
      6m 33s
    2. Setting up columns
      2m 53s
    3. Dividing a page into rows
      3m 27s
    4. Setting up a baseline grid
      5m 40s
    5. Handling baseline grid problems
      3m 37s
    6. Baseline grid tricks
      7m 23s
  17. 44m 26s
    1. Working with type outlines (CC 2014.1)
      6m 50s
    2. Creating an interlocking effect (CC 2014.1)
      3m 31s
    3. Fusing letterforms (CC 2014.1)
      7m 15s
    4. Type and gradients (CC 2014.1)
      4m 57s
    5. Type and transparency (CC 2014.1)
      1m 50s
    6. Type on a path: Circles (CC 2014.1)
      4m 48s
    7. Type on a path: Calligram (CC 2014.1)
      6m 16s
    8. Vertical type (CC 2014.1)
      2m 58s
    9. Type and image: Gradient (CC 2014.1)
      1m 38s
    10. Type and image: "See-through" type (CC 2014.1)
      1m 8s
    11. Type and image: "Disappearing" type (CC 2014.1)
      3m 15s
  18. 12m 19s
    1. Looking at screen documents
      4m 2s
    2. Setting size, leading, and line length onscreen
      3m 13s
    3. Exploring typefaces designed for the screen
      3m 36s
    4. Accessibility: Contrast and color
      1m 28s
  19. 28s
    1. Goodbye
      28s

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Watch the Online Video Course InDesign Typography
9h 20m Intermediate Aug 03, 2012 Updated Nov 12, 2014

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Explore the numerous type options, type-related features, and type-specific preferences of Adobe InDesign. Using practical, real-world examples, instructor and designer Nigel French dissects the anatomy of a typeface and defines the vocabulary of typography. The course moves from the micro to the macro level, addressing issues such as choosing page size, determining the size of margins, adjusting number columns, and achieving a clean look with baseline grids. This course takes you from laying out a page to delving into the hows and whys of typography.

Topics include:
  • Understanding text threads and text flow methods in InDesign
  • Using Copy and Paste vs. Place
  • Choosing and combining typefaces
  • Understanding leading and how it relates to type size and column width
  • Comparing points, picas, and ems
  • Learning the proper use of white space and break characters
  • Understanding the finer points of kerning and tracking
  • Working with punctuation, special characters, ornaments, and ligatures
  • Aligning text
  • Applying global formatting with paragraph, character, and object styles
  • Refining spacing with indents
  • Creating drop caps
  • Avoiding common problems associated with justified type and text wraps
  • Setting up margins and columns
Subject:
Design
Software:
InDesign
Author:
Nigel French

Working with justified type

Working with justified text, the challenge is how do we make sure that the spaces between the words is as even as possible? And what I have here are two examples. On the left we have Standard Justification settings, and on the right we have Custom Justification settings. So firstly, let me say that if you are going to justify your text, you need to make sure that your column measure is appropriate, i.e., you need to have enough characters per line so that you have enough words per line so that you have enough word spaces within which that variation can take place and hopefully be as imperceptible to your reader as possible. What's the right column measure? Well, different people have different standards, and this can depend upon what sort of typography you are working with, are you working with a magazine or a newspaper or a scholarly journal? But typically speaking, you hear numbers like it should be two alphabets per line, so that's 52 characters.

Now if you were to count the characters per line in a magazine, you're likely to find this far fewer than that, and it's still possible to achieve good justification with fewer characters on your line. It does make a bit harder to do so. though. So we are going to need to go the extra mile here to make sure that our spacing is as even as possible. Okay, so we're comparing this with this, but we also have a useful composition preference that will highlight where the problems are occurring.

First of all, I'm going to turn my Guides on by pressing the W key so that we go to the Normal View mode, and then I'm going to come to my Preferences and Composition and turn on H&J Violations, hyphenation and justification violations, and that's going to show me with yellow highlighting where I have the bad word spacing. And where it's vivid yellow it's really bad, and where it's light yellow it's not so bad. Now we can clearly see we have got a lot more in the left-hand column than we have on the right.

So how did I get from this point to this point? Well, what I'm going to do is delete this one, and I'll copy this one over, and then I'm going to do the following. With the text selected, and by the way, if you are working with large bodies of text, you of course want to do this as part of a Paragraph Style. I'm just working locally on this particular paragraph, but applying it through a Paragraph Style would be in the justification settings here and the hyphenation settings, but I'm going to be going to the Control panel menu and applying the same options just to this specific paragraph.

So first of all, I am going to turn on hyphenation. As I mentioned in the previous movie, this is going to improve our spacing. So, I'm going to turn that on, I'm going to be a bit more strict with the hyphenation than we are currently being, and I'm going to slide that over towards Better Spacing. So how has that changed thing? Well, I think it's made things a little bit better, not much though, but that's okay because we're not done yet. The next thing I'm going to do is I'm going to apply Optical Margin Alignment, I'll come to my Story panel, and very easy, all I need to do is check that check box, and what that is going to do is it's going to make my punctuation and hyphens to occur at the end of the line stick out beyond the edge of the text frame.

We can see right there I have a hyphen, then a comma, and another hyphen and another comma. So I'll be talking in the next movie specifically about Optical Margin Alignment, why I think it's a good idea. Not everyone does, as it's not universally agreed upon, but I think it's a nice idea. But for now I'm just going to apply and say no more. I'll carry on with the next thing, which is to change the Justification settings, and this is where we are going to get the most bang for our buck. So at the moment, the justification is relying exclusively upon the word spacing settings, which we are saying can vary between 80% and 133% of what is normal or desired.

The desired spacing being whatever the type designer decided should be the width of a space in this typeface. Now I'm going to leave that as is. In fact, I'm going to be a little bit strict. So things might get a bit worse before they get better. I'm going to say the Maximum is going to be 125. But in addition to the Word Spacing, I'm going to now call upon the Letter Spacing. I'm going to allow some variance in the spacing between the letters. It's going to be imperceptible, -2 is the Minimum. Desired will stay the same and the Maximum will change to 2.

And next I'm going to call upon the Glyph Scaling, the horizontal scaling of the characters, and if we allow an imperceptible amount of Glyph Scaling, this is going to dramatically improve our Justification. So 97 for the Minimum, 100 for the Desired, and 103 for the Maximum, so now when I click OK, look at that, all of that yellow highlighting is removed. One possible problem that this paragraph has is that it ends with a single word on the line, and it's relatively short word as well.

So it would be preferable I think to not have that happen. And to prevent that, I'm going to select those two words, and then come up to the Control panel menu and apply a No Break setting to that, and it's going to bring that word up to the previous line. Sometimes it'll bring the previous word down to the next line. But there we see by applying hyphenation, Optical Margin Alignment, and changing the Justification settings and then that last little tweak at the end, a No Break, we can get much better justified text.

Now just before I sign off, I did just want show you the difference or point out some differences between left aligned and left justified, and it's not necessarily an either/or proposition. You frequently see both types of alignment used often side by side in newspapers. And it tends to be that the more common pieces tend to run in left aligned or ragged text because this has a slightly less formal look about it, whereas the hard news will often be justified.

So you can use both, and mixing your alignments when done judiciously is a good way of applying some contrast to your text. Another aspect is that justified text is more economical in terms of the space usage, so here we have the same piece of text, and when we look at it, left aligned on the left, it's running a whole line longer than the same piece of text on the right where justification is applied.

So that, too, might be another consideration, justified text takes up slightly less room.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about InDesign Typography .


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The exercise files provided aren't working in my version of InDesign (CS4, CS5, or CS5.5). What should I use?
This course was recorded using InDesign CS6. For InDesign users working with CS4, CS5, or CS5.5, IDML files are provided.
Q: Where can I learn more about graphic design?
A: Discover more about this topic by visiting graphic design on lynda.com.
Q: This course was updated on 11/12/2014. What changed?
A: We added 18 new movies, primarily in the "Using Typekit" and "Type Treatments and Effects" chapters. These movies describe new and enhanced typography features in the latest release of InDesign CC, and are indicated by the "(CC 2014.1)" tag in their names.
 
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