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Working with justified text, the challenge is how do we make sure that the spaces between the words is as even as possible? And what I have here are two examples. On the left we have Standard Justification settings, and on the right we have Custom Justification settings. So firstly, let me say that if you are going to justify your text, you need to make sure that your column measure is appropriate, i.e., you need to have enough characters per line so that you have enough words per line so that you have enough word spaces within which that variation can take place and hopefully be as imperceptible to your reader as possible. What's the right column measure? Well, different people have different standards, and this can depend upon what sort of typography you are working with, are you working with a magazine or a newspaper or a scholarly journal? But typically speaking, you hear numbers like it should be two alphabets per line, so that's 52 characters.
Now if you were to count the characters per line in a magazine, you're likely to find this far fewer than that, and it's still possible to achieve good justification with fewer characters on your line. It does make a bit harder to do so. though. So we are going to need to go the extra mile here to make sure that our spacing is as even as possible. Okay, so we're comparing this with this, but we also have a useful composition preference that will highlight where the problems are occurring.
First of all, I'm going to turn my Guides on by pressing the W key so that we go to the Normal View mode, and then I'm going to come to my Preferences and Composition and turn on H&J Violations, hyphenation and justification violations, and that's going to show me with yellow highlighting where I have the bad word spacing. And where it's vivid yellow it's really bad, and where it's light yellow it's not so bad. Now we can clearly see we have got a lot more in the left-hand column than we have on the right.
So how did I get from this point to this point? Well, what I'm going to do is delete this one, and I'll copy this one over, and then I'm going to do the following. With the text selected, and by the way, if you are working with large bodies of text, you of course want to do this as part of a Paragraph Style. I'm just working locally on this particular paragraph, but applying it through a Paragraph Style would be in the justification settings here and the hyphenation settings, but I'm going to be going to the Control panel menu and applying the same options just to this specific paragraph.
So first of all, I am going to turn on hyphenation. As I mentioned in the previous movie, this is going to improve our spacing. So, I'm going to turn that on, I'm going to be a bit more strict with the hyphenation than we are currently being, and I'm going to slide that over towards Better Spacing. So how has that changed thing? Well, I think it's made things a little bit better, not much though, but that's okay because we're not done yet. The next thing I'm going to do is I'm going to apply Optical Margin Alignment, I'll come to my Story panel, and very easy, all I need to do is check that check box, and what that is going to do is it's going to make my punctuation and hyphens to occur at the end of the line stick out beyond the edge of the text frame.
We can see right there I have a hyphen, then a comma, and another hyphen and another comma. So I'll be talking in the next movie specifically about Optical Margin Alignment, why I think it's a good idea. Not everyone does, as it's not universally agreed upon, but I think it's a nice idea. But for now I'm just going to apply and say no more. I'll carry on with the next thing, which is to change the Justification settings, and this is where we are going to get the most bang for our buck. So at the moment, the justification is relying exclusively upon the word spacing settings, which we are saying can vary between 80% and 133% of what is normal or desired.
The desired spacing being whatever the type designer decided should be the width of a space in this typeface. Now I'm going to leave that as is. In fact, I'm going to be a little bit strict. So things might get a bit worse before they get better. I'm going to say the Maximum is going to be 125. But in addition to the Word Spacing, I'm going to now call upon the Letter Spacing. I'm going to allow some variance in the spacing between the letters. It's going to be imperceptible, -2 is the Minimum. Desired will stay the same and the Maximum will change to 2.
And next I'm going to call upon the Glyph Scaling, the horizontal scaling of the characters, and if we allow an imperceptible amount of Glyph Scaling, this is going to dramatically improve our Justification. So 97 for the Minimum, 100 for the Desired, and 103 for the Maximum, so now when I click OK, look at that, all of that yellow highlighting is removed. One possible problem that this paragraph has is that it ends with a single word on the line, and it's relatively short word as well.
So it would be preferable I think to not have that happen. And to prevent that, I'm going to select those two words, and then come up to the Control panel menu and apply a No Break setting to that, and it's going to bring that word up to the previous line. Sometimes it'll bring the previous word down to the next line. But there we see by applying hyphenation, Optical Margin Alignment, and changing the Justification settings and then that last little tweak at the end, a No Break, we can get much better justified text.
Now just before I sign off, I did just want show you the difference or point out some differences between left aligned and left justified, and it's not necessarily an either/or proposition. You frequently see both types of alignment used often side by side in newspapers. And it tends to be that the more common pieces tend to run in left aligned or ragged text because this has a slightly less formal look about it, whereas the hard news will often be justified.
So you can use both, and mixing your alignments when done judiciously is a good way of applying some contrast to your text. Another aspect is that justified text is more economical in terms of the space usage, so here we have the same piece of text, and when we look at it, left aligned on the left, it's running a whole line longer than the same piece of text on the right where justification is applied.
So that, too, might be another consideration, justified text takes up slightly less room.
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