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An important part of controlling how you'll text breaks, is employing Keep Options. Keep Options can be accessed from the Control panel menu, right here, and that can also be incorporated into a Paragraph Style definition, right here. Firstly, what are they? Well, they say that certain paragraphs need to be kept with other paragraphs, that certain paragraphs should not break, and that certain paragraphs need to have a minimum number of lines at the top of a column or the bottom of a page.
Now we can't apply too many Keep Options because we can't require everything to be kept together something's got to give somewhere along the way. But what we have here is clearly unacceptable where a subhead occurs at the bottom of a column, disassociated from the text which follows. So this is an easy fix using a Keep Option, and I'm going to as I always do, apply a Keep Option through the Paragraph Styles. So I'm going to come to my Paragraph Styles panel, and this Paragraph Style is called Subhead, I'm going to edit that, and then come to my Keep Option where I'll say Keep with Next, 1 line.
I could increase that to 2 lines, but in this case, 1 line is sufficient. Now you'll notice that we have also Keep with Previous. I cloud achieved exactly the same result had I edited the Paragraph Style for that Foster And Partners paragraph and said Keep with Previous. Just makes some more sense to me to use Keep with Next. Now in addition to that problem, in this next example, we have another problem. Here we have a Subhead, which is a two line Subhead, and it is being kept with the Next, or at least half of it is, so this in some ways is even worse, we definitely don't want to break a Subhead across the column or page break.
So let's see how we can avoid this. I'm going to edit the style definition, and this time, what we want is if I try Keep with Next, and I have my Preview turned on, you can see that's not going to do it, instead what I need to do is say Keep Lines Together. Now in addition to that, it's not going to affect this particular instance, but in addition to that I'm also going to incorporate Keep with Next as part of the Subhead paragraph style, so that solves that problem. And then thirdly, we have this particular problem where we can apply Keep Options to prevent widows and orphans-- stranded lines at the top or the bottom of our pages or columns--and here we have one such line. So that is a widowed line.
Frankly, I get the two terms, widows and orphans mixed up, doesn't really matter, they are both bad and they both need to be avoided. However, I wouldn't suggest you avoid them using Keep Options, and here's why. Because in this case, in this particular kind of document, we want our text to bottom out, i.e. end at the same point for each of our columns, and if I come to my Paragraph Styles and say Keep Options, and I'll say Keep Lines Together.
I can say I want two lines at the start and two lines at the end of every paragraph, at least. And that does indeed fix the problem, but it creates another problem and the other problem that it creates is that we now have a visual hole down there at the bottom, so that's what we want to avoid and for that reason I prefer not to use the Keep Lines Together part of Keep Options. Instead, if we have a widowed or orphaned paragraph, I'd prefer to fix it using tracking, as I demonstrated in the chapter on Tracking.
So there we see the different aspects of working with Keep Options, keeping lines together making sure the paragraphs don't break, and making sure that certain paragraphs are kept with other paragraphs.
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