Creating index topics and references
Video: Creating index topics and referencesThe first thing to know about building an index in InDesign is you do nearly all the work setting up an index in the Index panel, which you can find under Window > Type & Tables > Index. The panel has two modes-- Reference mode and Topic mode--and it's important to get the difference between these two clear in your mind from the start. Topics represent the names of each index entry. Topics have a level, so they can be a top-level standing by themselves or they can be subtopics within a higher-level topic.
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Creating Long Documents with InDesign shows designers how to create book-length documents in workflows with multiple users—using both InDesign features and third-party plug-ins. Publishing veteran Mike Rankin focuses on long document elements such as page and chapter numbering, table of contents, cross-references, and indexes. The course also provides an overview of document construction, from creating master pages and applying consistent formatting with styles to placing text and images and outputting to both print and interactive PDF.
- Using text variables
- Creating templates for InDesign, InCopy, and Word
- Employing nested styles
- Creating GREP styles
- Managing color with swatches
- Building page elements with libraries and snippets
- Performing GREP find/changes
- Using InCopy workflows
- Tracking changes
- Adding footnotes and indexes
- Using InDesign book files
- Versioning documents with conditional text or object styles
- Preflighting documents
- Archiving a project
- Finding and installing useful scripts and plug-ins for frequent challenges
Creating index topics and references
The first thing to know about building an index in InDesign is you do nearly all the work setting up an index in the Index panel, which you can find under Window > Type & Tables > Index. The panel has two modes-- Reference mode and Topic mode--and it's important to get the difference between these two clear in your mind from the start. Topics represent the names of each index entry. Topics have a level, so they can be a top-level standing by themselves or they can be subtopics within a higher-level topic.
Topics are just the names of entries; they don't have any page numbers. So to see Topics, you click on the Topic button. And I have several topics in this document already, which I can see by tipping open the triangles next to each letter. Double-clicking a topic or a subtopic brings us to the Topic Options dialog box, where I can edit the name of the topic, change its level or sorting. I can add topics by importing them from a Microsoft Word or other InDesign document, by choosing Import Topics from the panel menu. Or I can create topics from scratch by clicking on the New Topic button at the bottom of the panel and just typing it in.
Then if I scroll down to G, I'll see my new topic. I can also create topics just by highlighting text in the document and again clicking on the Create New Topic button. And there's this new topic. Now, it's not necessary to create a topic list first before you start adding specific page references, but it is a nice organized way to work.
The other mode of the Index panel is Reference mode, which I go to by clicking the Reference button. It looks a lot like Topic mode, except that when I tip open a specific entry, there is a page number associated with it. So the gingerbread entry is on page 3 currently. If I double-click on one of the page references, I get Page Reference Options, which are like the Topic Options we saw a minute ago, but since these include page numbers, they also include extra options for type. We'll go through what each of these does in a little while. Okay.
So now that we understand the basic workings of the panel, let's make some topics and some references. First, I'll switch back to Topic mode. I'll zoom out, and I'll go to page 17 of my document, because I know I want American Cheddars to be a topic. So I'll select that text and I'll click on the New Topic button and click OK. If I scroll to the top of the panel, I can see my new topic. Now, let's add some references under this topic.
I'll go to my next page and find a couple of American Cheddars to add under that heading. First, I'll select Wisconsin Longhorn. To add a new reference, I have to be sure I click on the New Reference button, and then I can press the keyboard shortcut, Command+7 or Ctrl+7 on the PC, to add a new page reference. Then to make Wisconsin Longhorn a subtopic of American Cheddars, I click the down arrow button and then find American Cheddars in my list of topics.
So I'll tip open A and double-click on American Cheddars to make it the top-level topic, and click OK. I also want to add Old California Jack as a subtopic of American Cheddars, so I'll select it. Again, I'll press Command+7 or Ctrl+7. I'll press the down arrow to make it a subtopic, tip open my topic levels, and double-click on American Cheddars. And I'll click OK. Now if I look under American Cheddars, I can see both Old California Jack and Wisconsin Longhorn, and their page references.
Now, I want to point out how InDesign is managing to find those page references. If I look at the story in the Story Editor, by pressing Command+Y or Ctrl+Y on the PC, I can see these little things that look like 3D glasses. These are index markers, and that's what gets placed in the text to gather the page numbers when you create a new page reference. You can also see these little symbols wherever an index marker is. And if I want to navigate to the spot where an index marker is, I can go to the Index panel, select the marker, and click on Go to selected marker, and my cursor jumps right to it.
All right! Now, let's take a look at the options for the different kinds of page references you can have. I am going to zoom out and go to page 20, and zoom back in on Sage, Vermont Sage, and Vermont State. I am going to make a new reference to Sage cheese by pressing Command+7 or Ctrl+7. And under Type, instead of Current Page, I want to choose a different type. I want to continue the page reference until I get to the next use of a specific style, and the Style I want is this chapter subhead, so I can pick it here.
So it will gather this page number and all the page numbers after it, until it encounters the next use of the chapter head. And I'll click OK. If I scroll down to S and tip open Sage cheese, I can see now I have page 20 through 21. And actually, let's open that one more time, and we'll just talk about each of the variations. So I can have the current page. I can have till the next change of any style, or to the specific style, as we used in the case of the Sage cheese, to the end of the story, all the way to the end of the document, or if the document is split up into sections, just to the section, or I can count specific numbers of paragraphs or pages.
I can also have no page number at all, by choosing Suppress Page Range. Another handy shortcut you can use to create page references is to prop our names where you want the index reference to be last name first, even though, what's in the actual text is first name last. Let's zoom out and go to page 15. I want an index entry for Samuel Johnson, but I want it listed under J, so I want Johnson, Samuel. So, I'll select the name and I'll use a keyboard shortcut, which is Command+Shift+Option+Right Bracket or Ctrl+Shift+Alt+Right Bracket on the PC.
If I scroll up in the panel, under J, I can see I now have an entry, Johnson, Samuel. This also works great when you want to include an article like "the" in an index reference, but you obviously don't want it sorted by T. Where this won't work is if you have a multipart name, like The Big Cheese. So if I go to page 5 and scroll up, I need to do something else to make Big and Cheese stay together as one unit. What I do for that is I make a non- breaking space in between those two words.
So InDesign sees them as one word and then puts "the" after it. My keyboard shortcut for a non- breaking space is Command+Option+X or Ctrl+Alt+X on the PC. Now, I can highlight The Big Cheese and press that keyboard shortcut, Command+Shift+Option+Right Bracket or Ctrl+Shift+Alt+Right Bracket on the PC. If I scroll up to B, I can see Big Cheese, The. Now let's see another option for page references. I'll zoom out and go to page 13 and zoom back in on the paragraph that starts with Napoleon.
I'll select Napoleon and press Command+7. Now, I want Napoleon to be listed twice-- once under N for Napoleon and once under B for Bonaparte, Napoleon--and this is where I can use the Add button. So first of all, I'll just click add so I have a page reference for Napoleon. And now I want a second reference, so I am going to type in manually "Bonaparte, Napoleon" and Sort By: Napoleon.
By keeping the dialog box open, I was able to put two references in one. Add All is a good shortcut when you want to add page references for every mention of an index term. But there are two issues with Add All that may cause you some grief. The first is that every reference will use the same page-numbering type, so you can have a mix of individual pages and page ranges. So I'd get, for example, pages 1, 2, 3, and 7, but I couldn't get 1-3, 7. If you want something like that, you need to add separate references for the 1 through 3 and then one for the 7; you can't use Add All.
The other potential problem with Add All is that it only adds exact matches, so it's case-sensitive. If some of your references are uppercase and some are lowercase, it won't find them all and group them together. It also won't find variations like singular and plural versions of a word. But there is a workaround for this problem, and that's using the Find/Change feature to add some flexibility that Add All lacks. We'll see that later on. And click OK. So here, we've seen methods for working with the Index panel to create both topics and page reference entries.
Next, we'll see how to create cross- reference entries that you see in See also to refer the reader to other index entries.
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