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In addition to the settings that you already see here inside of the Character panel, there are a few options that are kind of hidden here inside of the flyout menu from that panel. Let's explore a few of those. One of them is Small Caps. It's actually used quite often. Small caps are when you have capital letters or capital letterforms, but they are not taking up the full height of a capital letter. If you want to get that look when working with text, simply select your text, go to the Character panel in the flyout menu, and choose Small Caps. Now in this case, with this typeface Chaparral Pro, there happens to be a Small Caps font that's specifically part of this OpenType font.
If I take my Type tool and I highlight the letter O here, for example, I can go to the Type menu and choose Glyphs, open up my Glyphs panel, and I'll see that this is not just a regular O that's been set to a small cap height. It actually is using the real small caps letter O. As you can see here at the top of the menu over here, as I mouse over different letters, you'll actually see what it's being used as. You can see that Illustrator is using the real Small Caps version that the type designer created inside of this font, and again that will happen automatically when I'm using OpenType fonts.
Now there are some other options as well, for example, the famous equation of e=mc2. So in this case, here the 2 needs to be a superscript, and I can simply highlight that 2 here with my Type tool, go to the flyout menu of the Character panel, and choose Superscript. If I need to have a subscript--that's where characters sit below the baseline-- for example, when writing h2O, I can again highlight the 2 in this case, and then from the same flyout menu choose Subscript to allow that to happen. Of course, if I decide that I want to shift things around just a little bit, I can always use the Baseline Shift to make continuous adjustments.
But these are some common uses for both Small Caps, Superscripts, and Subscripts.
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