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In this installment of Illustrator Insider Training, author Mordy Golding shows how to create type that’s both beautiful and communicative, whether it’s destined for logos, brochures, signs, infographics, or simple documents. This course covers core typography concepts, such as working with Unicode and OpenType fonts, applying character and paragraph settings, managing text with styles and text threads, placing text along a path, and wrapping text around graphics.
Some of the settings that can drive people batty inside of Illustrator is hyphenation and justification. Hopefully, by the end of this movie, you will have a much better idea about what these do and how you can learn to control them. Now let's first talk about hyphenation. You can see here in this document that I have an area type object with some text inside of it. You can see that some of these lines of type actually have the hyphens inside of it. For example, the word powerful is hyphenated and the word combine is hyphenated. When does Illustrator decide to hyphenate words and when does it not? Well, first of all, inside of the Paragraph panel, you have a single check box that allows you to turn hyphenation on or off. Simply by unchecking that box, Illustrator will not use any hyphens at all inside of your text.
And of course, this the paragraph-based setting, so you can have some paragraphs with hyphenation on and some of them with hyphenation turned off. There may be many cases where you simply never want hyphenation to occur. In those cases I will simply go ahead and select all my text and turn hyphenation off. Or when I create paragraph styles, as we will do later on inside of this course, I will simply turn Hyphenate off at the style level. However, on an individual basis, you have the ability here to turn hyphenation on or hyphenation off. But even when hyphenation is turned on, how does Illustrator decide when it's allowed to use a hyphen and when it's not? Well, from the Paragraph panel, I am going to go to flyout menu.
I am going to choose Hyphenation. This brings up a dialog box here. I am going to click on the Preview button, and I want to go through some of the settings that are here. First of all, you can see that I have one check box that controls hyphenation overall, similar to this check box right over here inside the Paragraph panel. Now with Hyphenation turned on, I can choose exactly when hyphenation would occur. For example, I can tell Illustrator that hyphenation can only occur with words that have longer than six letters inside it. Now the word powerful has eight letters inside of it, so that's why it's being hyphenated.
But if I were to change this to 9, for example, and hit the Tab key to accept it, we can see the word powerful right now is not being hyphenated, and that's simply because it doesn't have enough characters in that word to qualify for hyphenation. Let's go back to 6 where I had this set before. And again, you can kind of change these settings as you go, on a paragraph level or across your entire document. You can choose that hyphenation can only occur after the first two letters of a word. So, for example, in the word powerful the hyphen appears after the first three letters inside of this word.
You probably never want there to be just the p and then a hyphen and the rest of the word appear on the next line. I can also choose how many letters have to occur after that hyphen. In this case here, I am saying, I need to have a least two letters that appear after the hyphen. I can also choose the Hyphen Limit, meaning how many hyphens in a row can I have in a paragraph? I certainly would not want to have a paragraph where maybe five lines in a row contain hyphens inside of them. Now with a value of 0, that means I'm not giving Illustrator any limit whatsoever. However, if I wanted to put let's say a value of 2 here, that will mean that Illustrator can only have two hyphens appear one after another, one line after another, but that the third line, even if there would be a situation that would qualify ot to have a hyphen, Illustrator would not use a hyphen in that case.
Now I also have an option here called Hyphenation Zone, and in this document here, I have actually created these shaded areas. This area right now has a width of 36 pts, and both of these shaded areas combined have a width value of 72 pts. The default setting for Illustrator is to use a Hyphenation Zone of 36 pts. That means that the word that is being hyphenated has to start before that value. So, for example, I have 36 pts right here. The word powerful starts right before that. So basically I have the ability to hyphenate his word because it's starting before this, but it needs to hyphenate before it gets to the end of that line.
But let's see what happens right now if I change the Hyphenation Zone from 36 to 72. Now you can see that the word powerful doesn't start at this point over here in 72, so it can't hyphenate it. The word most doesn't need to hyphenate, because there is plenty of room for the word most, so that's why by increasing the Hyphenation Zone, I will start to see less hyphens inside of my paragraphs. We will set it back to 36 pt here, which is a default setting inside of Illustrator. Of course, I can also use this slider here to simply choose Better Spacing or Fewer Hyphens.
Obviously Better Spacing is going to apply more hyphens inside of my document, so I have better spacing throughout. And Fewer Hyphens will give me fewer hyphens, but it will have to sometimes space out words to make that happen. I'll note that that setting really only kind of comes into play when you're using the Justification values of justified left and right sides of your paragraph, meaning that your text is aligned flush on the left and on the right, because in those cases Illustrator needs to add a lot of space in between all your words to make that happen. So in that case Illustrator starts to make these calculations about where hyphens come into play and when it's better to simply add space and not hyphenate or to hyphenate that there is fewer gaps that appear inside your paragraph.
We'll I'll actually talk a little bit more about those gaps in the next movie when we talk about the composers that Illustrator has. Now, finally here at the bottom, you can also choose whether or not you want to hyphenate capitalized words or not. Usually capitalized words, maybe they are pronouns, or they are names of products, and you probably don't want those to be hyphenated at all. So this is a way to prevent that from happening without having to go through on a case-by-case basis to modify those particular words. So that's what the Hyphenation settings are inside of Illustrator. But along with hyphenation also comes something called Justification.
So I am going to choose Cancel here, and I will now come to the flyout menu of the Paragraph panel again, but this time I am going to choose Justification. Now here I have the ability to adjust the spacing that appears inside of my paragraph. Now first of all, I am going to click on the Preview button here, and let's focus on the first one here called Word Spacing. I have three different values: one called Minimum, Desired, and Maximum. Now Desired is set to 100%. That means that right now the space character--its width was defined by whoever designed this typeface--is set to 100%, so that's the value that the type designer used.
So the space that appears in between each word is always going to be consistent. Now what I can do is I can set a Minimum value and a Maximum value. That means that Illustrator, if it's trying to fit more words on a line, can make those spaces a little bit smaller, up to 80% of that size, to get more words on a line. That means that there were some lines that appear inside of your paragraph that looks like the spaces are smaller than on other lines. We might refer to those lines as having very tight spacing. Of course, there may be some times where I have just a few words on a line, and Illustrator may go ahead now and space out those words a little bit, so we will increase the size of the spaces between the words, up to a value of 133%.
Now just to show you, if I change this now from 80% to a Minimum of 100, and I choose the Maximum value also as 100, that means that all the spaces that appear inside this paragraph are always going to be the same size, because I'm not letting Illustrator reduce or enlarge the size of that space. But if I were to go to a value of Minimum to 50, for example, and a Maximum of maybe 200, I am now letting Illustrator get my text to be really, really tight together, or to add a lot of space between the words as well.
Now remember, this only refers to the actual space that appears between words, meaning wherever I actually have a space character that I use by tapping the spacebar on my keyboard. This does not refer to tracking or kerning that occurs between individual characters. Now where this might become useful is when you start actually modifying the Desired value. Sometimes, for example, you might be typesetting a book for children, and maybe they need to have more spaces between each word so they can focus and very easily identify the different words.
So in that case, I may not even want a Desired value of 100. I may want there to be a lot of space between each word. So, for example, I am going to change the Desired value here to 150. So notice now that the words here are spaced out more. There are these distinct areas here, because each space now has been enlarged to 150%. So depending on the use of my text and the ultimate people who are going to be reading my text, I may decide to modify the Word Spacing inside of my document. Now Letter Spacing refers to the actual space that appears between each letter.
This is in addition, or on top of, the Kerning or Tracking settings that I may set. Now right now I am not letting Illustrator make any changes, because all these values are set to 0. But if I am trying to really squeeze a lot of text into a small amount of an area, I may choose to let Illustrator to have the letters tighten up with each other, even inside of individual words, to get more words in a line. However, keep in mind that in doing so I may really affect the legibility of my document. The same thing applies to Glyph Scaling. This is what refers to the actual size of each glyph that I'm using inside of my text.
I may allow Illustrator to condense or expand each individual character, again, to get more words in a line. 99 out of 100 cases, I highly doubt you'll ever use Glyph Scaling. But where I have seen it used is maybe sometimes you have those really long ingredients on medicine bottles. You know they have these words that have 10 different consonants in it with no vowels, and maybe from a legal perspective they simply don't allow hyphenation to occur to some of those ingredients. So by hook or by crook, you've got to get that text to fit on one line.
So in that case you may allow Illustrator to perform Glyph Scaling to get those really long words onto a single line without hyphenation. Finally, the settings here are at the bottom for Auto Leading, a default setting here of 120%, is what Illustrator uses when you set your Leading setting to Auto. It simply takes your point size and then sets the Leading to be 120% of that point size. In addition, if we are using Justification Settings inside of Illustrator and there is a single word on that line, you can choose whether or not you want to have it set to Full Justify, meaning that the word itself gets spaced out so that the beginning and the end of the word are stretched to either end of that paragraph frame, or you can choose whether that word is set to align Left, Center, or Right.
So hopefully now you have a better understanding of what hyphenation and justification values do inside of Illustrator.
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