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So here we are looking at our document with all of its ligatures or ligs as you'll sometimes hear them called. That's what the type hipsters calls them, if indeed there are such things, and one other ligature that I wanted to point out to you is this Th ligature. That's a standard ligature that got replaced as well, so you can see how nice that capital T and lowercase h look next to each other. In this exercise we are going to be talking about special ways to format numbers inside of InDesign including fractions, numerals, and ordinals and I'll tell you what all those things are and you probably everybody know what fractions and numerals are, but I'll introduce you to ordinals as well. I'm working inside that same document Composed & justified.ai that we began with in the previous exercise and it's found inside the 08_type folder of course. I'm going to go ahead and zoom in on this portion of the document that says 331/3. But it's not really clear that is what it says it could be 33 and 1/3 or 3 and 31/3 or 331/3 for all of that. So we need to express this as a built fraction. Meaning that inside of this font and the font that we happen to be working with here just to make things clear is Adobe Caslon Pro and that font is included with the Design Premium version of the Creative Suite 4 and it happens to be a very intelligent OpenType font and it's got all kinds of special characters built into it including one character that is one-third. The reason it has to be expressed as the single character is because otherwise things just look wrong.
Let me show you what I mean, I'm going to go ahead and select all this text here and I'm going to copy it by pressing Ctrl+C, Command+C on a Mac, then I'm going to press the Escape key to switch back to my Arrow tool and I'm going to press Ctrl+V or Command+V on the Mac in order to paste that text and I'll move it up so that we can see it against this other background here. For some reason it's coming in transparent for me, so I need to change its fill to black, by clicking on the black swatch here in the Swatches palette. It's the easiest way for me to do that. So let's say I was building it old style. If I didn't have a character 1/3 available to me, what would I do? Well, I would go ahead and grab my Type tool of course, I would select the 1 and I would bring up the Character palette here and I would go to the Character palette's flyout menu and I would choose Superscript in order to make it a small and raised 1. And then I would select 3 and I could make that a Subscript if I wanted to, but that would make it look terrible. Watch what happens if I choose Subscript. That knocks it down. It not only makes it smaller, but knocks it down as well. So I would press Ctrl+Z or Command+Z on the Mac to undo that and instead let's just take the Type Size down to 12 points. It's not known, exactly what we need to do to get it to match the 1 and I'm not sure if I got a good match or not, at this point. So I could say you know let's try to take that down to -- wait, that's the wrong direction. That's right. Take that down to, let's do it from the keyboard. Ctrl+Shift+< or Command+Shift +< a few times until we take it down to 11 points maybe. Is it a better match or even 11.5 might be okay? Something in that region. Then you would have to replace this character and this is what we used to do in the old days. This is why I'm sort of walking you through, just so you can appreciate how much better it is now. You would have to select that slash character because that's not a good fraction slash and then if you are working on a Mac, you would press Shift +Option+1, Shift+Option+1 gets you the standard fraction character. But on the PC, you would have to go to Character Map and you would have to search through all your characters and you would finally find this guy right there, fraction slash, and notice that it has a Unicode character 2044, but it has no Alt little diddly-poo that you type in the keypad. So what you have to do is double-click on this guy in order to add it to this little characters to copy, then you select, then you click Copy and then you come back to Illustrator and you would paste. This is old school, because Illustrator has a Glyphs palette that makes things easier, but this is the way we would have to work in the old days and now you would have yourself a fraction. The thing is it doesn't look a fraction is good, it's a real build fraction and it's so much easier to do. So watch this. this is what you do with an OpenType font. You select those characters, 1/3 right there, you go to the OpenType palette and you click on this little fraction guy. So click there and that changes it to a fraction. So easy to do and look how much better that fraction looks too instead of having this dinky light 1 that doesn't match the big 3 next to it. So it's light in weight. This is a nice chunky 1 and a nice chunky little 3 too that match their bigger chunkier brethren right there. Now it was important that I select just the 1/3 and not 33 and 1/3. If I selected the entire thing and hit that fraction , notice that it's 330 1/3 and so not only is it combining this one character , notice I can only select it like this.
there is one character that's one- third, but it's also adding these little ordinal numbers that are available inside of the font as well. Anyway, let's put them back by turning off Fraction for them. Okay, so that's one thing, we got fractions. So what used to be tedious and didn't look good is now easy and it looks great. Thanks to OpenType technology. Let's move over here to 1794 right there which is an old style date. Now currently if I were to select this text, you can see here inside the OpenType palette that Figure is set to Default Figure, meaning by the way that we are seeing Tabular Lining. So, Tabular Lining figures are numbers that are exactly the same width no matter what. So 1 takes up as much horizontal room as any of the other thicker character. So everybody gets the exact same amount of horizontal space. The reason that it works that way by default is because Tabular Lining characters line up great inside of a table. So if you are creating tables of numbers, you need to work with Tabular Lining characters. But if you are working with text, if you are just putting numbers inside of your text, which is pretty common, then you want to switch over to Proportion Lining instead. It looks much better. So I'll go ahead and show you what that looks like. Here is Proportion Lining and that goes ahead and kerns the characters together and gives less room to that 1 upfront. So that's going to look better for 21st century as well. I'll go ahead and select 21 and I'll change it from Default Figure to Proportional Lining and notice that the 2 and the 1 close up and end up looking better there. Now for 1794, I could go even farther. Since that's an old date I could apply, an old style number variation, if I wanted to. So I would switch from Proportional Lining to Proportional Old Style. You also have Tabular Old Style, if you want everybody take up the same width. But I want proportional style and that's going to give me what are known as lower case numbers. Notice that the 1 becomes small and the 7 and 9 get descenders, the 4 turns into descender as well. So great for old style stuff there. And then what about ordinals? Well, ordinals are raised letters and numbers and for example, 21st the s and the t ought to be raised. If I go to the Character palette, bring up the flyout menu and choose Superscript , we have that same problem we had a moment ago with the fraction, which is that this wee little s and t combination there. It doesn't look right with the text surrounding it. So it looks completely wrong. I'll go ahead and actually enter a new st there, so we can compare it to each other and look what happened. It automatically made those ordinals. It just knew that they should be ordinals. How did they know that? I have never seen that happen before, the way that happened. Is it set to automatically add an ordinal after this point? That's interesting, what you would have to do normally, I would select these letters and you can turn them into ordinals or not using this button right here. So previously we just a s and a t being a lovely, lovely discretionary item. That's nice. Let's turn that off. So this is what our s and t looked like before. Now we will turn on the ordinals and we get this. Now not every character can be an ordinal, so you could have an ND. You know it's not smart enough to say well, you don't really say 21nd. That would 2nd if I didn't have a 1 there could be the 2nd like that.
But not all characters have those. So if I were to enter X, for example that's bumping things around at this point, because we have really messed up the text. Let's see if I can, ho! Did I ever miss out that text? Let's see if I can get this back. Where am I? Oh! I'm in the wrong line. Oh dear, oh dear. There we go. Now I can at least tell where I am , even though things are misspelled. There we go. Ooh! That was a disaster . September, let's see if we -- that's nice too. That's so good. There we go, there we go. I think maybe things are coming back here. Wow! That's an interesting weirdness. I mean part of it is folks is completely understandable, but it had to drop that text down to a different line, because I was trying to push too much text into this line, so it dropped down. But the fact that I couldn't select it properly, that was not pleasant. Anyway, I have now been able to. That's good. So disasters averted I suppose. But notice, I just wanted you to see that this little embarrassing video moment here and it's one of them, c is not, so you can see some characters don't have ordinals. All right, just so you know, let's go ahead and restore that to the way it ought to look. Let's make sure I haven't messed up things so badly that we can't move forward here, I'll go ahead and press the Escape key, and let's hide that OpenType palette there and there we go, draft number 33 1/3 September 21st, 1794, I think that is entirely readable, legible and fantastic. Thanks to the ease of use. Mostly, associated with creating fractions, numerals and ordinals when working with OpenType fonts in Illustrator.
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