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This course introduces web designers to the nuts and bolts of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the programming language used to create web pages. Author Bill Weinman explains what HTML is, how it's structured, and presents the major tags and features of the language. Discover how to format text and lists, add images and flow text around them, link to other pages and sites, embed audio and video, and create HTML forms. Additional tutorials cover the new elements in HTML5, the latest version of HTML, and prepare you to start working with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
In HTML you create a hyperlink with the a tag. Let's make a working copy of links.html, and I'll call the copy links-working.html and open it in my text editor. Very simple, small, HTML page. It's got a paragraph and it's got a link. Go ahead and open this in the browser. You notice that the file that's opened here is on the desktop. The URL is a file URL like that. So what that means is that this URL is not on a server.
This file is not on a server. It's on my file system, so that's why we have a file URL. And there is a link here, and you'll notice the helper text at the bottom of the screen, so down here we get this little hyper text when I hover my mouse over it. It has an HTTP URL, so it says http://ldc.bw.org, and if we look here in the HTML file, you see here's a link to--we have was showing up at the bottom of the screen. You see it down there at the bottom of the screen? That's exactly the same.
So if I click on this, it loads up that page on my web site, and that URL is ldc.bw.org. Now, this is Firefox, and it obscures parts of the URL. If I put my cursor up here-- and that still doesn't do it. In some browsers, if you put your cursor up there, it will show you the whole URL with the HTTP and everything. Here it's just showing you the part of it that goes after the HTTP. So that's not helping us much, but that's what it looks like. So the a link, a stands for anchor, and that's a historical reference really.
A tags aren't so much anchors any more as they are just links. Used to have a dual purpose, and one of those purposes has been completely deprecated out of HTML. But it looks like this. It has the name of the tag, which is a; the href attribute, which specifies the URL where the link goes; and so it's as simple as that. And if we come back to the page here and we reload, we can click on that link and it takes us where we want to go. There is one attribute I'd like to show you here.
I can do something like section, and I can give it a little bit of style, and inside of that, I can have an h1 tag and I can have paragraph tags, and all of this can be inside of an a element. You know, when I save this and reload it in the browser, all of that is now this link and I can click anywhere in there and it will bring me to the target page. The a element by itself is very powerful, and it may look and work in many different ways, especially when combined with CSS.
We'll see more examples of this in the rest of this chapter.
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