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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

Using relative URLs


From:

XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Using relative URLs

In this lesson, we're going to talk about relative URLs and these are URLs that don't have all of the different parts and are just relative to the current location of the file that has the link in it. In other words, you have a link like this, which does says here.html. The browser will assume that file exists in the same location as this page here does. And so this page exists on the web at this location. And so we'll just take this last part of it, including the host name and the path all the way up to the file name and I'll just assume that all that part is the same and the only thing that changes is the file name there.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Using relative URLs

In this lesson, we're going to talk about relative URLs and these are URLs that don't have all of the different parts and are just relative to the current location of the file that has the link in it. In other words, you have a link like this, which does says here.html. The browser will assume that file exists in the same location as this page here does. And so this page exists on the web at this location. And so we'll just take this last part of it, including the host name and the path all the way up to the file name and I'll just assume that all that part is the same and the only thing that changes is the file name there.

So, let's take a look at this page in browser and you'll see this is loaded up on my website at pw.org and at that path and this is hyperlinks.html. And this link here is the link we're looking at it and it just has this here.html in the link and so when I hover my mouse over the link, you'll see the title bar at the bottom, shows the location of the page that it's going to call up when I click on it and you'll see that location is the same as the location in the title bar, with the exception, then instead of hyperlinks.html, it's got here.html.

So, if I click on that, you'll see that the only part that will change is this last part there. So, I'll go ahead and I'll click on the link and sure enough all the change was that and you've got here.html, instead of hyperlinks.html. So, I'll go ahead and go back to the previous page and you'll see that the visited link color has changed. Likewise, with Over there, this is another link and it has a subdirectory before there part but since there is no slash at the beginning of subdirectory, it's going to go ahead and just use this part here again and it will replace that with the subdirectory/there.html.

So to be in another directory, but it will not replace all of this all the way back to the beginning, because I didn't begin with those slash. If I begin with the slash there, it would replace all of this. But in this case, it's just going to replace that last part, with subdirectory, and there.html. So, I'll go ahead, I'll click on it and you'll see that now we're a directory deeper, and we've there.html and it did exactly what we expected it to do. And this one here has a special notation with these two dots. That means go up a directory.

So in this case, instead of just replacing this part here, it will go up a directory and replace all of this. So, we'll get this, else.html. And actually the link has a dash X at the end of it, so it will be else-x.html and it will start at that directory up one level. So, there we go, else-x. html and it's up a directory. So, I'll go back and now we are in our xhtml links directory again. And finally, this one, this is a link to an image and it will just display the image and likewise it will add this directory after the xhtml links directory here and show that image.

And that image is the parts of the URL, from our last lesson. So, that's how relative links work. Relative links work relative to the current location, the location of the file that has the links in them and they are pretty simple once you understand them.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
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