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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
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Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML


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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML

As we begin to talk about how XHTML deals with text, let's start with white space. White space is any kind of space, the space character, the tab character. It's a line feed. Any kind of white space, XHTML has a special way of dealing with it. So here we have a document and it has our front matter at the top. It has head section and a body section and it has a couple of paragraphs and these are paragraph tags. See the p at the beginning and the end tag at the end.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML

As we begin to talk about how XHTML deals with text, let's start with white space. White space is any kind of space, the space character, the tab character. It's a line feed. Any kind of white space, XHTML has a special way of dealing with it. So here we have a document and it has our front matter at the top. It has head section and a body section and it has a couple of paragraphs and these are paragraph tags. See the p at the beginning and the end tag at the end.

Everything inside of the paragraph element is a paragraph. So this text here is in a paragraph by itself and you see in the browser down here, we have our text editor at the top and our browser at the bottom so we can see what we are doing. The browser down there, that's in a paragraph by itself and this other line of text is in a paragraph by itself down here in the browser as well. So notice that the paragraph has words and it has spaces. Now if I go ahead and change this and just add a bunch of spaces and save the document and then go down here and reload in the browser, you will notice that the line of text does not change. All of these extra spaces are all folded into one space in the document in the browser.

So this is what XHTML does with space, and HTML works exactly the same way. All of these spaces are folded into one space in the browser. Now if instead of inserting a bunch of spaces, what if I insert a bunch of new lines and then save it? So I save the document and I reload in the browser and you will notice that the line of text is exactly the same. All of these new line characters are also folded into one space in the browser.

So this is how XHTML deals with white space. In fact, it doesn't matter what kind of white space it is or what kind of combination of white space it is. I could have a number of spaces up here. I could have a number of new lines down here. I could have more spaces over here and I could even break up another part of the line and all of this-- and I save the document and I load it up in the browser and it's still just the one line of text.

So this is how HTML and XHTML deal with white space. All white space is in a row. It's adjacent to each other. It is between pieces of text. All white spaces folded into one space character in the browser when it renders the line of text.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
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