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HTML Essential Training
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Introduction to HTML semantics


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HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Introduction to HTML semantics

HTML5 introduces a number of block-level semantic elements for organizing the content of a webpage. These are block-level elements with no inherent presentation properties, just like div. It's how they are designed to be used that makes them distinct. These elements are designed to create structure for your document so that it makes sense not only to the reader, but to other processes that may need to understand the structure of your document, like search engines, archival processes, non-visual browsers for the blind, or even future AI processes that we haven't even thought of yet.
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  1. 5m 24s
    1. Welcome
      56s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 37s
    3. What you need to know about this course
      2m 51s
  2. 22m 0s
    1. What is HTML?
      4m 12s
    2. Examining the structure of an HTML document
      7m 50s
    3. Understanding tags and containers
      6m 4s
    4. Exploring content models in HTML5
      2m 23s
    5. Looking at obsolete elements
      1m 31s
  3. 27m 19s
    1. Understanding whitespace and comments
      3m 53s
    2. Displaying text with paragraphs
      3m 37s
    3. Applying style
      8m 5s
    4. Using block and inline tags
      6m 34s
    5. Displaying characters with references
      5m 10s
  4. 16m 36s
    1. Exploring the front matter of HTML
      2m 9s
    2. Applying CSS to your document
      3m 59s
    3. Adding scripting elements
      4m 54s
    4. Using the meta tag
      3m 34s
    5. Optimizing your page for search engines
      2m 0s
  5. 24m 59s
    1. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      2m 46s
    2. Exploring phrase elements
      1m 44s
    3. Using font markup elements
      1m 5s
    4. Highlighting text with mark
      1m 29s
    5. Adding headings
      1m 38s
    6. Using quotations and quote marks
      3m 2s
    7. Exploring preformatted text
      1m 45s
    8. Formatting lists
      2m 28s
    9. Forcing text direction
      3m 49s
    10. Suggesting word-break opportunities
      2m 29s
    11. Annotating East Asian languages
      2m 44s
  6. 29m 15s
    1. Introducing CSS
      55s
    2. Understanding CSS placement
      6m 55s
    3. Exploring CSS syntax
      10m 34s
    4. Understanding CSS units of measure
      3m 3s
    5. Some CSS examples
      7m 48s
  7. 22m 5s
    1. Using images
      4m 13s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      4m 55s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      3m 3s
    4. Aligning images
      5m 25s
    5. Mapping links in an image
      4m 29s
  8. 22m 28s
    1. Understanding URLs
      2m 41s
    2. Working with hyperlinks
      3m 28s
    3. Using relative URLs
      4m 20s
    4. Specifying a base URL
      2m 19s
    5. Linking within a page
      4m 12s
    6. Using image links
      5m 28s
  9. 17m 2s
    1. Exploring list types
      3m 52s
    2. List elements in depth
      7m 44s
    3. Using text menus with unordered lists
      5m 26s
  10. 15m 30s
    1. Introduction to HTML semantics
      4m 9s
    2. Exploring an example
      4m 56s
    3. Marking up figures and illustrations
      2m 33s
    4. Creating collapsible details
      3m 52s
  11. 11m 18s
    1. Embedding audio
      5m 19s
    2. Embedding video
      5m 59s
  12. 11m 53s
    1. Creating ad-hoc Document Object Model (DOM) data with the data-* attribute
      4m 53s
    2. Displaying relative values with meter
      2m 57s
    3. Creating dynamic progress indicators
      4m 3s
  13. 4m 49s
    1. Overview of HTML5 microdata
      1m 8s
    2. Exploring an example with microdata
      3m 41s
  14. 7m 3s
    1. Understanding outlines
      52s
    2. A demonstration of outlining
      6m 11s
  15. 13m 1s
    1. Table basics
      7m 29s
    2. Exploring the semantic parts of a table
      2m 32s
    3. Grouping columns
      3m 0s
  16. 9m 55s
    1. Frames overview
      54s
    2. Using traditional frames
      4m 26s
    3. Exploring inline frames using iframe
      2m 7s
    4. Simulating frames with CSS
      2m 28s
  17. 53m 7s
    1. Introducing forms
      10m 24s
    2. Using text elements
      10m 12s
    3. Using checkboxes and radio buttons
      2m 37s
    4. Creating selection lists and dropdown lists
      5m 14s
    5. Submit and button elements
      8m 48s
    6. Using an image as a submit button
      2m 15s
    7. Keeping context with the hidden element
      3m 0s
    8. Setting tab order
      2m 7s
    9. Preloading an autocomplete list using the datalist feature
      5m 26s
    10. Displaying results with output
      3m 4s
  18. 19m 47s
    1. Touring a complete site
      2m 14s
    2. Touring the HTML
      8m 44s
    3. Touring the CSS
      8m 49s
  19. 29s
    1. Goodbye
      29s

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HTML Essential Training
5h 34m Beginner Sep 11, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

This course introduces web designers to the nuts and bolts of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the programming language used to create web pages. Author Bill Weinman explains what HTML is, how it's structured, and presents the major tags and features of the language. Discover how to format text and lists, add images and flow text around them, link to other pages and sites, embed audio and video, and create HTML forms. Additional tutorials cover the new elements in HTML5, the latest version of HTML, and prepare you to start working with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

Topics include:
  • What is HTML?
  • Using HTML tags and containers
  • Understanding block vs. inline tags
  • Controlling line breaks and spaces in text
  • Aligning images
  • Linking within a page
  • Using relative links
  • Working with tables
  • Creating progress indicators with HTML5
  • Adding buttons and check boxes to forms
  • Applying CSS
  • Optimizing your pages for search engines
  • Building document outlines
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Foundations Web Development
Software:
HTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Introduction to HTML semantics

HTML5 introduces a number of block-level semantic elements for organizing the content of a webpage. These are block-level elements with no inherent presentation properties, just like div. It's how they are designed to be used that makes them distinct. These elements are designed to create structure for your document so that it makes sense not only to the reader, but to other processes that may need to understand the structure of your document, like search engines, archival processes, non-visual browsers for the blind, or even future AI processes that we haven't even thought of yet.

The point is that it should be possible for a relatively unsophisticated machine to create an outline of your document so it knows which parts are relevant for a particular purpose. Take this hypothetical document structure for example. From this diagram, it should be easy to see that we have a fairly typical web page. It had a header, a footer, a section with a couple of articles, and a sidebar. We can see that clearly because it's all labeled for us. That's the point of semantic markup; you're creating labels that make it obvious what parts of your page serve what purpose.

Of course, each of these semantic segments may also have its own semantic segments. This is common and encouraged. If an article has a header, a footer, its own navigation, it's entirely appropriate to indicate them with their own semantic elements. It's helpful to think of these elements in terms of how they affect the document outline. HTML5 defines a specific algorithm for creating an outline, and these elements are defined in terms of how they affect that outline. The major sectioning elements are listed here.

This is the list of elements that are intended to be used where you would otherwise use a div. The section element represents a generic section of the document. It's not a generic container for styling purposes like div; rather, it's intended to indicate a semantic section of the document that is not otherwise covered by another sectioning element. The article element represents a self-contained composition within a document. The HTML5 specification says this could be a forum post, a magazine or newspaper article, a blog entry, a user-submitted comment, an interactive widget or gadget, or any other independent item of content.

The nav element represents a section of the page that contains a set of links to other pages or other resources. Don't think that you need to put all links or groups of links in a nav element. Keep in mind that this is about the document outline and nav elements are excluded from a document outline. The aside element represents a part of the page that is tangentially related to the content around it, like a sidebar or pull quotes, or other semi-related content. This set of semantic elements are not sections, but are used within sections.

These elements are designed to describe parts of a section for the benefit of document outlines, summaries, and other tools. The header element is for the header part of the section. This is very different from the head element. The header element contains content that is displayed. The specification says the header element represents a group of introductory or navigational aids. In practice, you'll want to use this where there's a group of elements in the header of a section. If your section has a single h1 tag or an h group with nothing else in the header, there's no need for a header container.

A footer element typically contains information about its section, like author information, links to related content, copyright, things like that. It's typically at the end of a section, but it doesn't have to be. hgroup is used to group heading tags together. When a number of heading tags are grouped in an hgroup element, the first example of the highest-ranking heading will be used as the text for the entire group. For example, the outline text for this hgroup would be Dr. Strangelove; the subtitle would be displayed on the page but ignored for the purposes of the outline.

These semantic elements make it possible to create a consistent outline of your document. This can help automated processes like search engines or browsers for the visually impaired make better sense of your websites.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about HTML Essential Training.


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Q: The horizontal nab bar built in Chapter 8 doesn't work correctly in Internet Explorer 8. Do you have a solution?
A: Internet Explorer 8 does not support HTML5 and the NAV element.

The nab bar can work in IE 8 if you change the nav element to div, and update the CSS accordingly. You will also need to move the "display: inline" from the "ul.menu li a" rule to the "ul.menu li" rule.
 
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