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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
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Exploring a simple XHTML page


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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Exploring a simple XHTML page

This is the simplest possible HTML document. This is all that's required in a document in HTML. You have a title and you have a paragraph. That's all that's really required. This is the same document in XHTML. This is the simplest possible XHTML document. You'll notice it's got a lot more stuff. You look at this document and you look at this HTML document and you've got to be asking yourself, why would I want to go through all this trouble when I can get away with this? That is an excellent question.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Exploring a simple XHTML page

This is the simplest possible HTML document. This is all that's required in a document in HTML. You have a title and you have a paragraph. That's all that's really required. This is the same document in XHTML. This is the simplest possible XHTML document. You'll notice it's got a lot more stuff. You look at this document and you look at this HTML document and you've got to be asking yourself, why would I want to go through all this trouble when I can get away with this? That is an excellent question.

The difference is the XHTML document is going to work more consistently across more platforms on in to the future. So that's why we care about XHTML. The truth is writing this document is no more trouble at all than writing this document. All you have to do is have all of this other stuff saved in a template someplace and whenever you start a new document, you just start from that point and typing your title and your content and you're going, and so it's really not anymore trouble at all.

So let's take a look at some of the different elements in this document. Before we do that, we need to talk a little bit about terminology. So we are on the same page as we talk about all the different parts of this document. So, this is a tag. It begins with a left angle bracket and it has the name of the tag inside and then it ends in a right angle bracket. This is an end tag. It's the same as the tag except it has this slash character between the opening angle bracket and the name of the tag.

So together, these two tags are called a beginning tag and an end tag. Inside, they have the content of the element. So altogether, with the begin tag and the end tag and the content, it's called an element. An element includes all of those pieces, begin, content and end. The begin tag is this one and the end tag is that one, okay? So this is the title tag, here is the head tag and you'll notice that the head tag contains the title tag.

So everything between the beginning of the head and the ending of the head is the whole element, the head element. The head element contains the title tag and it may contain even some other stuff. This is the body tag and the body element contains the body of the document, including this paragraph and whatever else you might want to put in there. Then there is the HTML element, which contains all of it. It goes all the way up here, actually, doesn't it? Yeah. So, that's tag and that's element. A container is a type of a tag that has content.

The P element is a container. It has content. We might have another element that doesn't have content, like the horizontal rule, hr and there is an hr tag that does not have content. It stands alone by itself. Now in XHTML, a standalone tag that does not have content must have this little slash before the closing angle bracket. The reason for that is that in XHTML, all tags must be terminated. So when you have a container, it's easy; you have an end tag that terminates the element.

If you don't have a container, if you have just a standalone tag, then it must have this little shorthand for closing. It would be just as legal to write it this way, but nobody does. That would be just as legal. Now you have a begin tag and an end tag. So instead, there is this shortcut, this shorthand, which says this is terminated. Now, this space between the name and the slash is not actually required. It is traditional. So I tend to do it, but it's not required.

So that is a complete hr element. It has it's begin tag and really has its end tag built into the begin tag. So it begins and ends all in one tag. That is a valid element that doesn't have content. Now let's take a moment and just talk about all this stuff at the top. This stuff at the top is required and that's really all you need to know about it. What it is, how it works, is probably not relevant. It's just required. This is what makes it valid XHTML and this is what makes it possible for it to be read across a lot of different devices, well in to the future.

So you just cut-and-paste it, you keep it in a template, we'll talk about how to do that a little bit later. We're going to talk a little bit about some of the components of this a little bit later, so that you'll understand the parts of it that you may want to occasionally change, but for the most part, you just need to know that it's required and you're going to cut-and- paste that and it's included in the Templates section of the exercise files with this course. So that's it. This is a valid XHTML file. If you do in this way, they're going to work across devices well and consistently and well in to the future.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
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