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One of the most exciting additions that HTML5 offers to designers is the ability to draw free-form graphics on a drawing surface known as the Canvas. In this course, author Joe Marini introduces the technical concepts behind Canvas and shows how to perform drawing operations directly in a web page. The course covers drawing basic and complex shapes, setting colors and styles, adding shadows, patterns, and gradients, more advanced techniques such as scaling, rotating, and compositing objects, and how to incorporate Canvas elements in a slideshow and an animation.
In this chapter we're going to take a look at using some more complex canvas drawing techniques, and the first one we're going to look at is creating shadows. So there are four attributes that you can use to draw shadows on the drawing context on the canvas. And all drawing operations that take place on the canvas are affected by these shadow attributes. This includes paths, images, text, lines, whatever. When you draw shadows, they can be colored, they can be offset in both the X and Y direction, and they can have a blur value.
And in fact, these right here are the available properties to use when drawing a shadow. So the first one is the shadowColor, and that's the color to use when drawing the shadow. And again, like other places where you can set a color, you can use any kind of CSS color string to specify a color. Now if you don't specify one, it defaults to transparent black. The OffsetX and OffsetY properties are pretty self-explanatory. They control the horizontal offset of the shadow, which defaults to 0, and the vertical offset, which also defaults to 0.
And there is a Blur factor that you can set on the shadow as well. This defaults to 0, but it has to have a value that's greater than 0 in order to have any visible effect. So let's jump over to the code and take a look at drawing shadows. Here we are in the code, and I've got my shadows_start file opened up, and that is located in the folder for chapter 06. So let's just take a quick look at that in the browser, take a look at shadows_start.
So we start off with an empty canvas, which is only visible by its dotted outline, and we'll go back over to the code. In my Snippets file, under the section for Shadows, I am going to copy some code over. So this first set of lines here basically sets up some basic shadow settings, so I'll copy those and I'll bring those over here in the section where we've tested for the canvas and gotten the context. We're going to set some shadow settings, so here you can see I'm setting the shadowColor to black and the Offsets to 10 pixels in both X and Y, and I'm giving it bit of a Blur factor.
And then I'm going to copy the first example. So let's copy that and bring it over. So, in this case, we've created a rectangle using the fillRect function right here, along with a fillStyle. And the fillStyle is basically going to fill this rectangle with a blue color, at 100% opacity, and make a rectangle 200 pixels wide and 100 high. And because we've set up some shadow properties here, it will draw a shadow behind the rectangle.
So let's go back to the browser, and we'll refresh. And you can see that there's the blue rectangle, and there's the shadow behind it. And let's take a look at this in some other browsers. So we'll just right-click and we will say Open with. In this case, let's take a look at Firefox. Okay, there's the same effect in Firefox. There's the shadow. Let's take a look in Opera. And you can see there's the shadow around the object in the Opera browser. Let's just do one more. Let's go ahead and look at this in Chrome.
And there it is in Chrome. There's the shadow around the object right there. Let's go back to the code. Let's get another example. In this case, let's use some text. Let's see what drawing a shadow on a text looks like. So we'll come back and we'll paste this in. So in this case, we have a text string, and we are setting the fillStyle to be green. And here I'm changing the shadow colors.
So in this case, the shadow is a bit of a combination of the green and blue colors at half opacity. I've changed the Offset, so I have changed the Blur, and I've also set the font size to be a little bit larger. So when we go to fill the text, we should see a different color shadow behind the text. So let's save. Let's look at it in IE. And sure enough, you can see there's the text. There's the shadow behind it. And let's go back to Firefox. Do the same thing. Yup! That works. And let's look at it in Chrome.
Sure enough, it all seems to work just fine. Let's go back to the code and let's look at another example. In this case, we're going to do it on a line. So we'll copy, and we will paste. So in this case, now we have a line, and I've got a round line cap with a width of 25. And once again, changing some of the shadow properties, in this case, making more of a purple color with a higher Blur number. And the strokeStyle is going to be red.
We're going to have a red line with a round line cap that's 25 pixels wide. So we begin our path, we do the moveTo and lineTo, and when we call the stroke function. That is when the shadow gets created. So let's save. Let's refresh IE. You can see there it is, and there's that little purply kind of shadow behind it. And let's do the same thing in Firefox. Yeah, it works fine. Let's go to Chrome. Yeah, works fine there too. Before we go, let's just take a look at some things we can do with shadows.
What I'm going to do is I'm actually going to take the shadowOffset here and down here, I'm actually going to make these negative numbers. So I'm going to do -15 and -15, and we'll save. Okay, now let's go back to the browser and refresh. So you see how the shadow in that case moved up and to the left behind the object. So in addition to specifying positive numbers which moves the shadow to the right on the X axis and down on the Y axis, by specifying negative numbers, we can move the shadow up and to the left.
So negative X means go to the left, and negative Y means go up. So in this example, we've seen how to draw shadows with varying colors, varying blur effects, and varying offsets using the shadow properties.
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