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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

Controlling line breaks and spaces


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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Controlling line breaks and spaces

In our lesson on paragraphs, we talked about how the browser automatically formats a paragraph taking multiple occurrences of white space, spaces, new lines, etcetera and folds them into one space for the purpose of formatting the paragraph. In this lesson, we are going to talk about how to control the line breaks in the browser. Here in our Editor on the top of the screen, we have a couple of paragraphs and we are displaying those paragraphs in the browser on the bottom of the screen. Let me go ahead and shrink the browser down so that the paragraphs wrap a little bit.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Controlling line breaks and spaces

In our lesson on paragraphs, we talked about how the browser automatically formats a paragraph taking multiple occurrences of white space, spaces, new lines, etcetera and folds them into one space for the purpose of formatting the paragraph. In this lesson, we are going to talk about how to control the line breaks in the browser. Here in our Editor on the top of the screen, we have a couple of paragraphs and we are displaying those paragraphs in the browser on the bottom of the screen. Let me go ahead and shrink the browser down so that the paragraphs wrap a little bit.

For the purposes these lessons we can show how to control those wraps. You will notice that the first paragraph up here extends past the Editor window with no wraps whatsoever and you will notice that down in the browser it wraps normally. You will notice that the second paragraph is wrapped normally on the screen and it wraps normally down here in the browser as well. So this first paragraph goes beyond the Editor window and if we break it at some place, let's break it over here, and save it, of course this does not affect how it's rendered in the browser whatsoever.

So how do we actually get aligned to break where we intend it to? For this purpose we use the BR tag, br, and it's a standalone tag. It does not have any content. So we use the shortcut notation here to satisfy XHTML's need for beginning and an end tag. If we save this and reload it in the browser, you will notice that the paragraph breaks there and yet the paragraph is still formatted as a paragraph. In other words, it has got extra space between the two paragraphs and this is normal behavior for block elements in a browser window.

Now we'll go ahead and take that out and the paragraph is back the way it was and save, reload it in the browser so we can see that intentional line break is done. Now how do we get a line break to not happen? You will notice that between the words Notice and How over here that there is line break that's happened, because the browser decided that it needs to wrap there in order to make it into a paragraph. What if we wanted to not wrap there? If I go ahead and put in a non-breaking space here, this is a special character entity called non-breaking space, then this will prevent a break between these two words and these two words will be on one line, so they will get wrapped down to the next line.

Before we save this and look at how it works, let's talk about the character entity here. You notice it has an ampersand at the beginning and a semicolon at the end and in between the ampersand and the semicolon we have letters, nbsp. This is how you use a character entity in HTML and XHTML. The ampersand denotes the beginning of the character entity and the semicolon is the end of it and in between you have the designation of the character entity. In this case, it's a named entity and it's named nbsp, which stands for non-breaking space.

So go ahead and save this and reload the browser and you will see that now the paragraph does not wrap between the words Notice and How. It doesn't break there. It only breaks before it or after it and so it takes the whole thing as a one for here and puts it on the next line, and that's how a non-breaking space works in HTML. In fact, if you wanted this paragraph to not wrap at all, you can select the entire line and I'm just going to select it from here to the end and not include that space before & and use the Editor's Search and Replace feature to replace the space.

The Editor fills in whatever you have selected when you do that and replace all the spaces with non-breaking space entities. Replace All in selection, 26 occurrences, Close. I will go ahead and Save and reload in the browser and we see now that that paragraph doesn't break at all. It goes all the way across and you have to scroll sideways in order to see the entire paragraphs. It puts it all on one line and that's because there aren't any spaces that it can break and all the spaces in the paragraph are non-breaking spaces.

I am going to undo this and go ahead replace this element here with a space and character entity non-breaking space entity, save and reload in the browser and we see that our paragraph is now back to normal. There is another way that we can force this paragraph to not break and this is a non-standard element. It is not in the standard and it tends to work in most of the browsers that I have seen including Internet Explorer and Firefox and all the popular browsers. But it's not in any of the standard.

So it's an unsupported rogue non-standard element. It's called a no-break and it's spelled nobr. I'll go ahead and insert it there and at the end of the line. So everything between those beginning and end tag will not break. So I'm going to Save that and reload in the browser and you see we now have a non-breaking paragraph. So this is shortcut for making a non-breaking paragraph, should you actually want one and you don't feel like search and replace all the spaces in the paragraph.

It is not supported. It's not part of the standard. It's just one of those elements that's cropped up out of a necessity, but was never made a part of the standard. So you can use that, if you want to and it will work in most browsers, but just know that it's not part of the standard. So this is how you control the line breaks in a paragraph. You can use the br element to insert a line break where you want it and you can use the nbsp character entity to prevent line breaks where you don't want them and you can use the unsupported non- standard no-break tag to prevent line breaks for a block of text.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
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