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HTML Essential Training
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Applying CSS to your document


From:

HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Applying CSS to your document

The link tag is used for linking to an external style sheet, but you can also define local styles right your HTML file. Let's start by making a working copy of style.html here in the Chap03 folder of the exercise files. I am going to rename this style-working.html and I'm going to open it in my text editor here. So what we have is a simple document with some Lorem ipsum down here. Lorem ipsum is random Latin text that is designed to be not distracting, to look enough like text for use in laying out documents, and not enough like text to be distracting in itself.
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  1. 5m 24s
    1. Welcome
      56s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 37s
    3. What you need to know about this course
      2m 51s
  2. 22m 0s
    1. What is HTML?
      4m 12s
    2. Examining the structure of an HTML document
      7m 50s
    3. Understanding tags and containers
      6m 4s
    4. Exploring content models in HTML5
      2m 23s
    5. Looking at obsolete elements
      1m 31s
  3. 27m 19s
    1. Understanding whitespace and comments
      3m 53s
    2. Displaying text with paragraphs
      3m 37s
    3. Applying style
      8m 5s
    4. Using block and inline tags
      6m 34s
    5. Displaying characters with references
      5m 10s
  4. 16m 36s
    1. Exploring the front matter of HTML
      2m 9s
    2. Applying CSS to your document
      3m 59s
    3. Adding scripting elements
      4m 54s
    4. Using the meta tag
      3m 34s
    5. Optimizing your page for search engines
      2m 0s
  5. 24m 59s
    1. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      2m 46s
    2. Exploring phrase elements
      1m 44s
    3. Using font markup elements
      1m 5s
    4. Highlighting text with mark
      1m 29s
    5. Adding headings
      1m 38s
    6. Using quotations and quote marks
      3m 2s
    7. Exploring preformatted text
      1m 45s
    8. Formatting lists
      2m 28s
    9. Forcing text direction
      3m 49s
    10. Suggesting word-break opportunities
      2m 29s
    11. Annotating East Asian languages
      2m 44s
  6. 29m 15s
    1. Introducing CSS
      55s
    2. Understanding CSS placement
      6m 55s
    3. Exploring CSS syntax
      10m 34s
    4. Understanding CSS units of measure
      3m 3s
    5. Some CSS examples
      7m 48s
  7. 22m 5s
    1. Using images
      4m 13s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      4m 55s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      3m 3s
    4. Aligning images
      5m 25s
    5. Mapping links in an image
      4m 29s
  8. 22m 28s
    1. Understanding URLs
      2m 41s
    2. Working with hyperlinks
      3m 28s
    3. Using relative URLs
      4m 20s
    4. Specifying a base URL
      2m 19s
    5. Linking within a page
      4m 12s
    6. Using image links
      5m 28s
  9. 17m 2s
    1. Exploring list types
      3m 52s
    2. List elements in depth
      7m 44s
    3. Using text menus with unordered lists
      5m 26s
  10. 15m 30s
    1. Introduction to HTML semantics
      4m 9s
    2. Exploring an example
      4m 56s
    3. Marking up figures and illustrations
      2m 33s
    4. Creating collapsible details
      3m 52s
  11. 11m 18s
    1. Embedding audio
      5m 19s
    2. Embedding video
      5m 59s
  12. 11m 53s
    1. Creating ad-hoc Document Object Model (DOM) data with the data-* attribute
      4m 53s
    2. Displaying relative values with meter
      2m 57s
    3. Creating dynamic progress indicators
      4m 3s
  13. 4m 49s
    1. Overview of HTML5 microdata
      1m 8s
    2. Exploring an example with microdata
      3m 41s
  14. 7m 3s
    1. Understanding outlines
      52s
    2. A demonstration of outlining
      6m 11s
  15. 13m 1s
    1. Table basics
      7m 29s
    2. Exploring the semantic parts of a table
      2m 32s
    3. Grouping columns
      3m 0s
  16. 9m 55s
    1. Frames overview
      54s
    2. Using traditional frames
      4m 26s
    3. Exploring inline frames using iframe
      2m 7s
    4. Simulating frames with CSS
      2m 28s
  17. 53m 7s
    1. Introducing forms
      10m 24s
    2. Using text elements
      10m 12s
    3. Using checkboxes and radio buttons
      2m 37s
    4. Creating selection lists and dropdown lists
      5m 14s
    5. Submit and button elements
      8m 48s
    6. Using an image as a submit button
      2m 15s
    7. Keeping context with the hidden element
      3m 0s
    8. Setting tab order
      2m 7s
    9. Preloading an autocomplete list using the datalist feature
      5m 26s
    10. Displaying results with output
      3m 4s
  18. 19m 47s
    1. Touring a complete site
      2m 14s
    2. Touring the HTML
      8m 44s
    3. Touring the CSS
      8m 49s
  19. 29s
    1. Goodbye
      29s

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HTML Essential Training
5h 34m Beginner Sep 11, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

This course introduces web designers to the nuts and bolts of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the programming language used to create web pages. Author Bill Weinman explains what HTML is, how it's structured, and presents the major tags and features of the language. Discover how to format text and lists, add images and flow text around them, link to other pages and sites, embed audio and video, and create HTML forms. Additional tutorials cover the new elements in HTML5, the latest version of HTML, and prepare you to start working with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

Topics include:
  • What is HTML?
  • Using HTML tags and containers
  • Understanding block vs. inline tags
  • Controlling line breaks and spaces in text
  • Aligning images
  • Linking within a page
  • Using relative links
  • Working with tables
  • Creating progress indicators with HTML5
  • Adding buttons and check boxes to forms
  • Applying CSS
  • Optimizing your pages for search engines
  • Building document outlines
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Foundations Web Development
Software:
HTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Applying CSS to your document

The link tag is used for linking to an external style sheet, but you can also define local styles right your HTML file. Let's start by making a working copy of style.html here in the Chap03 folder of the exercise files. I am going to rename this style-working.html and I'm going to open it in my text editor here. So what we have is a simple document with some Lorem ipsum down here. Lorem ipsum is random Latin text that is designed to be not distracting, to look enough like text for use in laying out documents, and not enough like text to be distracting in itself.

And let's go ahead and open this in the browser so we can see what it looks like. We see this is already styled with our style sheet. Here in the document you can see rel="stylesheet" main.css. So let's go ahead and open main.css as well. And here's our CSS, you can see it's a very simple CSS file. This is really what I call a CSS reset. It's just setting the defaults so that my document will look the same in various different browsers on various different platforms, or as close to the same as it can.

Now we'll look at this in the browser. You'll notice that, yes it's styled and it's not the default, and it's got the font that I asked for everything, but it actually doesn't look very good. The first thing that jumps out at me is that the paragraph text, the lines are too close together. There is not enough leading in typesetting; leading is the space between lines. And so I want to go and fix that, but I don't want to change my main.css because I like this. It has function for me across the entire site or across in this case the entire course.

So I'm not going to change that, instead want I'm going to do is I'm going to go here into my HTML file and here's where we linked to the external style sheet, and we know how to do that using the link tag. The other thing we can do here, right up here in the head, is we can put in a style tag and it looks like this, and that allows us to put a style sheet right here in the HTML document. And so the first thing I'm going to do is, I'm going to say for my p elements, I want to increase the line-height, and I know that I've got the line-height set to 1 in my main.css.

So I'm going to put 1.2 and we'll learn more about CSS later in the course, or if you want to learn more about CSS, I strongly suggest you take my CSS course, CSS for Developers here on the lynda.com online training library. So we'll save this and we'll bring it up in the browser, and I'll reload the browser and you see now it gave us a little bit of air. There is little bit of spacing between lines and it actually looks a whole lot better. I just like to do one more thing, make this look a little bit more bookish.

I'm going to take this first line of the first paragraph. I am going to make it all small caps because I see that in books sometimes and I think it's cool. And so I'm just going to say p.first: first-line, and so .first means that it's a class, so I'm going to have to call out that first paragraph and give it a class of first. That's a class selector. I'm going to come in here and I'm going to say font-variant: small caps. And then I'm going to come down to my first paragraph, I'm going to say, class="first".

So any paragraph with the class="first", which is this .first here, and then this pseudo-selector of first-line means it will just apply to the first line of the paragraph and I'll give a small caps. So I'm going to save that, come over here to the browser and hit reload, and you use our first line there is in small caps, caps in small caps, and then the rest of it is in mixed case, like it's supposed to be. So while you'll usually use a link tag to employ an external stylesheet, you'll sometimes want a few simple styles specific to given document. The style element in the head section is an excellent way to accomplish this.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about HTML Essential Training.


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Q: The horizontal nab bar built in Chapter 8 doesn't work correctly in Internet Explorer 8. Do you have a solution?
A: Internet Explorer 8 does not support HTML5 and the NAV element.

The nab bar can work in IE 8 if you change the nav element to div, and update the CSS accordingly. You will also need to move the "display: inline" from the "ul.menu li a" rule to the "ul.menu li" rule.
 
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