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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
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Aligning paragraphs


From:

XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Aligning paragraphs

So in our last lesson we talked about paragraphs and how they work and how they wrap. Now let's take a look at how to change the alignment of a paragraph. Here we have a document, a fully formed XHTML document with all the front matter at the top and in the content of the document we have one paragraph element and it's there to there. We have the paragraph tag and the close tag and some text in between and down here at the bottom we have this document opened in a browser with the paragraph displaying there on the screen.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Aligning paragraphs

So in our last lesson we talked about paragraphs and how they work and how they wrap. Now let's take a look at how to change the alignment of a paragraph. Here we have a document, a fully formed XHTML document with all the front matter at the top and in the content of the document we have one paragraph element and it's there to there. We have the paragraph tag and the close tag and some text in between and down here at the bottom we have this document opened in a browser with the paragraph displaying there on the screen.

Let me just drag this back a little bit so the paragraph wraps nicely. You will notice that the paragraph is justified on the left, it's aligned flush on the left and it's ragging on the right and this is the default alignment for a paragraph in XHTML and HTML. So let's take a look at how to change that, I'm going to add an attribute to the paragraph here, say align="right". So this is what an attribute looks like in XHTML. You have the attribute name, and an equal sign and the argument of the attribute is in quotes.

I tend to use double quotes. Single quotes also work just fine. So this is how it's formed, you have the left angle bracket and then the name of the tag, which is a p tag in this case for paragraph, and then you have some space. It can be any amount of white space. You can have new lines here. You can have any amount of legal white space and then the name of the attribute. In this case is align which tells the paragraph how to do its alignment and an equal sign and the argument in quotes and in this case, the argument is the word "right" and a close angle bracket and then you have the close tag down here with the content in the middle.

So I'm going to go ahead and save this. What we expect to have happen when we reload in the browser is that the right side will be flush, the left side will be ragged. So I'll go ahead and hit Reload and there we have it. The right side of the paragraph is now flush and the left side is ragged, and so that's the right alignment. There are two other alignments available, one is called justify and what this does is this makes both sides of the paragraph flush and then we have the left side as flush and the right side as flush.

And the other alignment is center, which makes it ragged on both sides, all of the content centered in between and there we have center. The default option of course is left and so we saw that without any argument in the alignment. You can also do it this way if you want to explicitly assign it. You can say align= "left" and reload in the browser. We have that flush on the left and ragged on the right as we did with the default arrangement. And so that is the alignment attribute to the paragraph tag and its various options.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
 
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