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Adding scripting elements

From: HTML Essential Training

Video: Adding scripting elements

The script element is used for including scripting language code in your HTML. It's most commonly used with JavaScript. You may put the code inline or you may link to an external file. Let's make a working copy of javascript.html, and we'll rename our working copy to be javascript-working. I'll open that in my text editor and you'll see this is a very simple file, a little bit more down here. So all this does is it has a little JavaScript function here that counts once a second and it puts the output in this ElementById output.

Adding scripting elements

The script element is used for including scripting language code in your HTML. It's most commonly used with JavaScript. You may put the code inline or you may link to an external file. Let's make a working copy of javascript.html, and we'll rename our working copy to be javascript-working. I'll open that in my text editor and you'll see this is a very simple file, a little bit more down here. So all this does is it has a little JavaScript function here that counts once a second and it puts the output in this ElementById output.

And if you'd like more details on JavaScript and how to write good JavaScript, I strongly suggest you take Simon Allardice's excellent JavaScript Essential Training course here on lynda.com. So without going into a lot of details about the JavaScript, let's talk about the script element. So here you see the script element, and you'll notice I have type="text/javascript". Over the years there've been a number of different things that a person could put in the script element to indicate what the language is of the script. Now the truth is, is that 99 times out of 100, the language is going to be JavaScript.

I have yet to see anybody put another language in the script element in an HTML file on a public-facing web server. Perhaps in some intranets or something, there is something else, but I've not seen it. So we say type="text/javascript" that's the mime type for JavaScript. That's the standard. It's been the standard way to do this for a number of years. So inside of the script element, the content of the script element is the JavaScript. And again, there is a lot of things that people will put around the JavaScript to obscure it from browsers that might not understand it.

But the truth is, on the modern Internet, there aren't any browsers anymore that won't understand some simple JavaScript. So on some extreme cases perhaps there are some things you might need to do, but in most cases there is not. You'll notice down here in the h2 element I have a span element and the span element has an id attribute and the id attributes says "output". Now we've seen the id attribute used for CSS ID selectors, but in this case we're using the same id attribute to select the element for the JavaScript.

So we have e = document.getElementById ("output") and now this e variable is that element and we can use a property on that inner HTML to actually change the contents of that output element, and that output element is span in this case, and it has a 0 there, but it'll have different numbers as we increment our counter. So let's go ahead and save this and open it in the browser. I am going to open this in Firefox, and there we have it, and you see, there it is, counting away 1, 2, 3, 4, et cetera.

As I said, this id attribute is often used for stylesheets, and in fact I can come in here and I can say style and I can use it as a CSS selector. And now I can do things to that output element, like for instance I can change its color, make it a little bit reddish. I can give it a background color and I can give it a border. When I save this and load it up in the browser, I'll just hit Reload here. See we start at 0 again when I reload, and there it is.

It's got its border. It's got its yellow background and it has the reddish text. So we see how to do this with JavaScript inside of the document, but more often than not your JavaScript is going to be in a separate JavaScript file. So the script element is actually a little bit quirky in this way. It's going to look like this, and you'll notice that I have the end tag and I have empty content, so why don't I just do it like this instead? Because that we know is the shortcut for an empty tag.

Well, the reason we don't do that is that that doesn't work. It doesn't work in several browsers that I've tried, in fact off the top of my head I seem to remember it worked in one or two browsers, but I don't remember which ones they were. It definitely does not work in Firefox. So in this case and in this case alone, you need to actually use the begin tag and the end tag, and it needs to be completely empty. You can't do that. It needs to be completely empty. So you notice my source says count.js. If we can open up count.js in our text editor and you can see it's exactly the same code, and when I load this in my browser you'll notice that it works just great.

So the script element is used to include code in a scripting language in your HTML. It's most commonly used with JavaScript. You may learn more about JavaScript in Simon Allardice's excellent JavaScript Essential Training course here on lynda.com.

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This video is part of

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HTML Essential Training

82 video lessons · 97472 viewers

Bill Weinman
Author

 
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  1. 5m 24s
    1. Welcome
      56s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 37s
    3. What you need to know about this course
      2m 51s
  2. 22m 0s
    1. What is HTML?
      4m 12s
    2. Examining the structure of an HTML document
      7m 50s
    3. Understanding tags and containers
      6m 4s
    4. Exploring content models in HTML5
      2m 23s
    5. Looking at obsolete elements
      1m 31s
  3. 27m 19s
    1. Understanding whitespace and comments
      3m 53s
    2. Displaying text with paragraphs
      3m 37s
    3. Applying style
      8m 5s
    4. Using block and inline tags
      6m 34s
    5. Displaying characters with references
      5m 10s
  4. 16m 36s
    1. Exploring the front matter of HTML
      2m 9s
    2. Applying CSS to your document
      3m 59s
    3. Adding scripting elements
      4m 54s
    4. Using the meta tag
      3m 34s
    5. Optimizing your page for search engines
      2m 0s
  5. 24m 59s
    1. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      2m 46s
    2. Exploring phrase elements
      1m 44s
    3. Using font markup elements
      1m 5s
    4. Highlighting text with mark
      1m 29s
    5. Adding headings
      1m 38s
    6. Using quotations and quote marks
      3m 2s
    7. Exploring preformatted text
      1m 45s
    8. Formatting lists
      2m 28s
    9. Forcing text direction
      3m 49s
    10. Suggesting word-break opportunities
      2m 29s
    11. Annotating East Asian languages
      2m 44s
  6. 29m 15s
    1. Introducing CSS
      55s
    2. Understanding CSS placement
      6m 55s
    3. Exploring CSS syntax
      10m 34s
    4. Understanding CSS units of measure
      3m 3s
    5. Some CSS examples
      7m 48s
  7. 22m 5s
    1. Using images
      4m 13s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      4m 55s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      3m 3s
    4. Aligning images
      5m 25s
    5. Mapping links in an image
      4m 29s
  8. 22m 28s
    1. Understanding URLs
      2m 41s
    2. Working with hyperlinks
      3m 28s
    3. Using relative URLs
      4m 20s
    4. Specifying a base URL
      2m 19s
    5. Linking within a page
      4m 12s
    6. Using image links
      5m 28s
  9. 17m 2s
    1. Exploring list types
      3m 52s
    2. List elements in depth
      7m 44s
    3. Using text menus with unordered lists
      5m 26s
  10. 15m 30s
    1. Introduction to HTML semantics
      4m 9s
    2. Exploring an example
      4m 56s
    3. Marking up figures and illustrations
      2m 33s
    4. Creating collapsible details
      3m 52s
  11. 11m 18s
    1. Embedding audio
      5m 19s
    2. Embedding video
      5m 59s
  12. 11m 53s
    1. Creating ad-hoc Document Object Model (DOM) data with the data-* attribute
      4m 53s
    2. Displaying relative values with meter
      2m 57s
    3. Creating dynamic progress indicators
      4m 3s
  13. 4m 49s
    1. Overview of HTML5 microdata
      1m 8s
    2. Exploring an example with microdata
      3m 41s
  14. 7m 3s
    1. Understanding outlines
      52s
    2. A demonstration of outlining
      6m 11s
  15. 13m 1s
    1. Table basics
      7m 29s
    2. Exploring the semantic parts of a table
      2m 32s
    3. Grouping columns
      3m 0s
  16. 9m 55s
    1. Frames overview
      54s
    2. Using traditional frames
      4m 26s
    3. Exploring inline frames using iframe
      2m 7s
    4. Simulating frames with CSS
      2m 28s
  17. 53m 7s
    1. Introducing forms
      10m 24s
    2. Using text elements
      10m 12s
    3. Using checkboxes and radio buttons
      2m 37s
    4. Creating selection lists and dropdown lists
      5m 14s
    5. Submit and button elements
      8m 48s
    6. Using an image as a submit button
      2m 15s
    7. Keeping context with the hidden element
      3m 0s
    8. Setting tab order
      2m 7s
    9. Preloading an autocomplete list using the datalist feature
      5m 26s
    10. Displaying results with output
      3m 4s
  18. 19m 47s
    1. Touring a complete site
      2m 14s
    2. Touring the HTML
      8m 44s
    3. Touring the CSS
      8m 49s
  19. 29s
    1. Goodbye
      29s

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