Easy-to-follow video tutorials help you learn software, creative, and business skills.Become a member

Adding document structure with headings

From: XHTML and HTML Essential Training

Video: Adding document structure with headings

Headings in HTML and XHTML add structure to your document and this is valuable for search engines and other automated tools that might want to categorize your documents and to understand the structure of them a little bit, so they can give you more intelligent results. Headings are valuable for this purpose. Headings are rendered a certain way in browsers. By default, they tend to be a little bit ugly and so some people tend to not use the headings, instead formatting paragraphs for the purpose. I am suggesting that it's a good idea to go ahead and use the headings and format those using CSS.

Adding document structure with headings

Headings in HTML and XHTML add structure to your document and this is valuable for search engines and other automated tools that might want to categorize your documents and to understand the structure of them a little bit, so they can give you more intelligent results. Headings are valuable for this purpose. Headings are rendered a certain way in browsers. By default, they tend to be a little bit ugly and so some people tend to not use the headings, instead formatting paragraphs for the purpose. I am suggesting that it's a good idea to go ahead and use the headings and format those using CSS.

In this way, your documents can have the structure that they need so that the automated tools can report on them properly and at the same time, they then look the way that you want them to look. Let's take a look at how we can do this. Here's our heading 1 and you'll notice that it's big and ugly and here's our heading 2. The heading 2 means that the part of the document after the heading 2 is related to the part of the document after the most recent heading 1, and likewise, the heading level 3, h3, means that that part of the document is related to the most recent h2 level of the document.

This is how they are rendered in the browser and as you can see, they may not be exactly what you want. So, you can change that by adding some style. We are going to go into the Style Sheets in a lot more detail in the chapter on CSS. But let's just take a look at how you can do this in this case, so you can see what the results look like. I'll add a style here. Let's say we want it in a Sans-Serif font and just a little bit larger than the paragraph, not a lot larger than the paragraph. So, we'll go ahead and say font-family: sans-serif and font-size: say 125%.

So, it will be just a quarter of a percent larger than the normal paragraphs in the document. I'll go ahead and save that and reload in the browser and we can see that looks a lot more reasonable. Now, we'll go ahead and take this style and copy it because that's easier than typing a lot, and we'll go ahead and paste it over here and let's maybe add some color to this one. Let's say heading level 2 will be dark blue. So, I'll say color. I'm going to use a color like this.

That's a blue and we'll talk more about what that means in the section on CSS. I'll go ahead and save that and reload over here and we see that that's a dark blue. It's a little bit bluish. It's not an overwhelming blue. We'll go ahead and we'll copy this and use it as a basis for the heading level 3 and go ahead and say instead of changing the color of the text, we are going to change the background-color of the text. Background-color like that and we'll say it's going to be a light blue.

So, I'll make it say #ccf, which is a light blue. Go ahead and save that and load it up in the browser and we have a light blue background now on this. So, you can see that you can do things to make it attractive or make it look how it is that you want it to look and yet still have the structure that's important for the automated tools that might be reading your web page. So, headings are valuable for that purpose, they are valuable for giving your documents structure and they can be made pretty by using CSS.

We'll talk about CSS in a lot more detail in our chapter on CSS later in this course.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for XHTML and HTML Essential Training
XHTML and HTML Essential Training

59 video lessons · 80692 viewers

Bill Weinman
Author

 
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

Start learning today

Get unlimited access to all courses for just $25/month.

Become a member
Sometimes @lynda teaches me how to use a program and sometimes Lynda.com changes my life forever. @JosefShutter
@lynda lynda.com is an absolute life saver when it comes to learning todays software. Definitely recommend it! #higherlearning @Michael_Caraway
@lynda The best thing online! Your database of courses is great! To the mark and very helpful. Thanks! @ru22more
Got to create something yesterday I never thought I could do. #thanks @lynda @Ngventurella
I really do love @lynda as a learning platform. Never stop learning and developing, it’s probably our greatest gift as a species! @soundslikedavid
@lynda just subscribed to lynda.com all I can say its brilliant join now trust me @ButchSamurai
@lynda is an awesome resource. The membership is priceless if you take advantage of it. @diabetic_techie
One of the best decision I made this year. Buy a 1yr subscription to @lynda @cybercaptive
guys lynda.com (@lynda) is the best. So far I’ve learned Java, principles of OO programming, and now learning about MS project @lucasmitchell
Signed back up to @lynda dot com. I’ve missed it!! Proper geeking out right now! #timetolearn #geek @JayGodbold
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.


Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ.

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

Join now "Already a member? Log in

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.


Mark all as unwatched Cancel

Congratulations

You have completed XHTML and HTML Essential Training.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.


OK
Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member?

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Get started

Already a member?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferencesfrom the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Are you sure you want to delete this note?

No

Your file was successfully uploaded.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.


Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

   
submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.