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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
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Adding document structure with headings


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XHTML and HTML Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Adding document structure with headings

Headings in HTML and XHTML add structure to your document and this is valuable for search engines and other automated tools that might want to categorize your documents and to understand the structure of them a little bit, so they can give you more intelligent results. Headings are valuable for this purpose. Headings are rendered a certain way in browsers. By default, they tend to be a little bit ugly and so some people tend to not use the headings, instead formatting paragraphs for the purpose. I am suggesting that it's a good idea to go ahead and use the headings and format those using CSS.
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  1. 5m 10s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 23s
    3. Choosing a text editor
      2m 31s
  2. 15m 46s
    1. Introducing HTML and XHTML
      2m 53s
    2. Understanding versions of HTML and XHTML
      2m 25s
    3. Exploring a simple XHTML page
      4m 47s
    4. Understanding the structure of an XHTML document
      2m 58s
    5. Understanding document containers
      54s
    6. Creating and using templates
      1m 49s
  3. 42m 4s
    1. Understanding how empty space is formatted in XHTML
      2m 42s
    2. Using paragraph tags
      2m 42s
    3. Aligning paragraphs
      2m 49s
    4. Understanding block-level and inline tags
      1m 24s
    5. Controlling line breaks and spaces
      5m 43s
    6. Formatting text with phrase element tags
      3m 28s
    7. Formatting text with font markup elements
      3m 24s
    8. Adding document structure with headings
      3m 25s
    9. Formatting quotations and quote marks
      2m 19s
    10. Preserving pre-formatted text
      1m 30s
    11. Selecting a typeface
      4m 33s
    12. Selecting a type size
      2m 11s
    13. Using ordered and unordered lists
      5m 54s
  4. 7m 48s
    1. Using inline images
      3m 17s
    2. Flowing text around an image
      2m 4s
    3. Breaking lines around an image
      2m 27s
  5. 22m 34s
    1. Working with hyperlinks
      7m 46s
    2. Using relative URLs
      3m 5s
    3. Specifying a base URL
      2m 4s
    4. Linking within a page using fragments
      4m 28s
    5. Creating image links
      5m 11s
  6. 22m 56s
    1. Introducing tables
      4m 37s
    2. Formatting tables with CSS
      8m 50s
    3. Aligning images with tables
      5m 7s
    4. Reviewing an alternative solution using CSS
      4m 22s
  7. 14m 31s
    1. Introducing frames
      7m 56s
    2. Hiding frame borders
      3m 15s
    3. Creating inline frames using iFrame
      3m 20s
  8. 20m 50s
    1. Introducing forms: part 1
      10m 37s
    2. Introducing forms: part 2
      7m 45s
    3. Using CGI with forms
      2m 28s
  9. 25m 42s
    1. Introducing CSS
      3m 11s
    2. Understanding levels of inheritance
      6m 10s
    3. Learning CSS syntax
      11m 23s
    4. Using units of measure in CSS
      4m 58s
  10. 1h 45m
    1. Comparing table layout and CSS layout
      1m 25s
    2. Exploring the finished web site
      2m 37s
    3. Building a document header
      8m 18s
    4. Placing a banner and a contact button
      8m 13s
    5. Laying out a main menu
      6m 55s
    6. Creating a layout template: main body area
      13m 31s
    7. Creating a layout template: sidebar area
      5m 17s
    8. Creating a layout template: footer content
      4m 46s
    9. Building a main home page: main body content
      11m 24s
    10. Building a main home page: sidebar content
      8m 52s
    11. Creating a page with a menu, graphics, and formatted links
      13m 26s
    12. Creating a page containing an ordered list
      6m 44s
    13. Creating a page containing video
      10m 45s
    14. Touring the finished site
      3m 45s
  11. 53s
    1. Goodbye
      53s

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XHTML and HTML Essential Training
4h 44m Beginner Jul 28, 2009

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In XHTML and HTML Essential Training, Bill Weinman helps designers and coders understand XHTML and HTML. In the process, Bill covers document structure, block and inline-level tags, floating images, controlling white space, phrase and font markup, and tables and frames. He even provides a good introduction to CSS. Bill offers step-by-step guidance for building a complete working web site. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the structure of an HTML or XHTML document
  • Creating and using templates
  • Controlling white space and line breaks
  • Making effective use of tables and frames
  • Flowing text around an image
  • Formatting tables with CSS
  • Creating web pages that work properly across platforms and devices
  • Reviewing a case study of a complete web site
Subjects:
Developer Web Web Design Web Foundations Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
HTML XHTML
Author:
Bill Weinman

Adding document structure with headings

Headings in HTML and XHTML add structure to your document and this is valuable for search engines and other automated tools that might want to categorize your documents and to understand the structure of them a little bit, so they can give you more intelligent results. Headings are valuable for this purpose. Headings are rendered a certain way in browsers. By default, they tend to be a little bit ugly and so some people tend to not use the headings, instead formatting paragraphs for the purpose. I am suggesting that it's a good idea to go ahead and use the headings and format those using CSS.

In this way, your documents can have the structure that they need so that the automated tools can report on them properly and at the same time, they then look the way that you want them to look. Let's take a look at how we can do this. Here's our heading 1 and you'll notice that it's big and ugly and here's our heading 2. The heading 2 means that the part of the document after the heading 2 is related to the part of the document after the most recent heading 1, and likewise, the heading level 3, h3, means that that part of the document is related to the most recent h2 level of the document.

This is how they are rendered in the browser and as you can see, they may not be exactly what you want. So, you can change that by adding some style. We are going to go into the Style Sheets in a lot more detail in the chapter on CSS. But let's just take a look at how you can do this in this case, so you can see what the results look like. I'll add a style here. Let's say we want it in a Sans-Serif font and just a little bit larger than the paragraph, not a lot larger than the paragraph. So, we'll go ahead and say font-family: sans-serif and font-size: say 125%.

So, it will be just a quarter of a percent larger than the normal paragraphs in the document. I'll go ahead and save that and reload in the browser and we can see that looks a lot more reasonable. Now, we'll go ahead and take this style and copy it because that's easier than typing a lot, and we'll go ahead and paste it over here and let's maybe add some color to this one. Let's say heading level 2 will be dark blue. So, I'll say color. I'm going to use a color like this.

That's a blue and we'll talk more about what that means in the section on CSS. I'll go ahead and save that and reload over here and we see that that's a dark blue. It's a little bit bluish. It's not an overwhelming blue. We'll go ahead and we'll copy this and use it as a basis for the heading level 3 and go ahead and say instead of changing the color of the text, we are going to change the background-color of the text. Background-color like that and we'll say it's going to be a light blue.

So, I'll make it say #ccf, which is a light blue. Go ahead and save that and load it up in the browser and we have a light blue background now on this. So, you can see that you can do things to make it attractive or make it look how it is that you want it to look and yet still have the structure that's important for the automated tools that might be reading your web page. So, headings are valuable for that purpose, they are valuable for giving your documents structure and they can be made pretty by using CSS.

We'll talk about CSS in a lot more detail in our chapter on CSS later in this course.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about XHTML and HTML Essential Training.


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Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques within
the next few months. In the meantime, please see Bill's <a href="
http://www.lynda.com/home/DisplayCourse.aspx?lpk2=52341">CSS for
Developers</a> title for more information on coding with CSS.
Q: In the "Understanding the structure of an XHTML document" movie in Chapter 1, where does the "Roses are red," etc, text come from? I don't see it in the code.
A: Notice the <frame src="??"> tags. These reference other .html files that contain the content of the various frames. Details about how frames work can be found in Chapter 6 of the course.
Q: In this title, the instructor uses tables to create a website design. Is there a way to create this same layout with CSS?
A: This course will be updated to include CSS-based layout techniques later in 2012. In the meantime, please see Bill's CSS for Developers title for more information on coding with CSS.
 
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