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The course shows how to use Git, the popular open-source version control software, to manage changes to source code and text files. Using a step-by-step approach, author Kevin Skoglund presents the commands that enable efficient code management and reveals the fundamental concepts behind version control systems and the Git architecture. Discover how to track changes to files in a repository, review previous edits, and compare versions of a file; create branches to test new ideas without altering the main project; and merge those changes into the project if they work out. The course begins by demonstrating version control in a single-user, standalone context, before exploring how remote repositories allow users to collaborate on projects effectively.
We are labeling what we were doing in this change set so when we come back and look at it later, we can just look at the commit message and know what's inside, what's contained in that set. So we want to have good descriptive commit messages. There are also some other best practices that we should follow. We want to start with a short single-line summary, less than 50 characters, keep it short. Optionally, we can follow that by a blank line and then a more complete description. Now if you are just making a tiny little change, a single-line summary will do it, but if you're committing a change that has lots of changes, that take place in lots of files, it might be worthwhile to have a more complete description.
Now the way we were doing it before from the single command line, that's a little tricky to do inside those double quotes, but we can also use a text editor to make these commit messages well, and that makes it easier to do multiline commit messages. Even then you want to keep those additional lines to less than 72 characters, and that's because different people may be looking at your commit log from different types of tools, they may be using Mac or Windows, viewing it on the web, graphical user interfaces, they may be receiving this commit information via email, so we want to limit it to 72 characters. And you want to write commit messages in the present tense, not in the past tense, you are labeling what this commit does, not what you--as the creator--were doing.
These kinds of decisions are really the personal preferences that you or your organization will need to decide on. But it's a good idea to pick standards like this and then stick with them and get everyone to agree to it so that everyone working on the repository is using the same set of conventions for their commit messages. So you want to be clear and descriptive, so, for example, Bad: "Fix typo", would be an example of a bad commit that doesn't really tell what's going on. A good example would be "Add missing > in project section of HTML" much more descriptive of what we were doing, what was going on, what is the typo, what were we in here trying to fix.
Bad: "Update login code" that's pretty general, a good example "Change user authentication to use Blowfish", right, much more descriptive about what was going on and what we were doing with this change. Again, providing good labels on the outside of the envelope and then another bad example would be to include other comments in there that really aren't about the commit, so "Updates member report, we should discuss if this is right next week". Well, this commit is going to live in our repository potentially for years and years and years having a comment that that says we should discuss if this is right next week.
This isn't email, right, this in not a way to communicate with our team members, we can do that using other tools. What we want to do here is just provide a good label for what's inside the commit. So let's take a look at an example of one good commit. So here's an example of a good commit message, it's got a tracking number, this is the convention that this company is going to use for tracking support tickets, t23094 - Fixes bug in admin logout. That's a little bit vague, but we've got something underneath it that gives it more description, When an admin logged out of the admin area, they could not log in to the members area because their session :user_id was still set to the admin ID.
This patch fixes the bug by setting session :user_id to nil when any user logs out of any area. Notice that it describes what the problem was and then describes what the solution was as well. So it's all there. If we come, and we just look at this, we don't have to actually look at the code, and we have a good idea of what the creator of this commit was trying to do. It's a good label on the commit to let us know what it's going to do when we add this change set to the project. Now I mentioned that you should keep the first line to less than 50 characters and then subsequent lines to less than 72 characters.
Just as a reference, the longest line in this commit is about 60 characters wide. So that gives you an idea of how much you can fit on a line, you can go a little further than this, this is about 60 characters wide, and then you just need to hit a Return, and then you can keep typing. So hopefully right here from the start, I can get you thinking about what a good descriptive commit message is so that all of our commits will be well labeled. That's going to be really important with Git, because remember Git works with these commit snapshots and allows us to exchange them between repositories. So it's very important that we have well labeled commits so that if Bob makes a commit and then Mary is thinking about incorporating that commit into her project, she can look at it, see what that commit is, and decide to merge it into her project so that it becomes part for her project as well.
So having well-labeled commits is really important. In the next movie we'll take a look at how we can look at the log of previous commit messages.
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