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Git Essential Training

Viewing commits


From:

Git Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Viewing commits

In the last movie, we saw how to get more out of the commit log, so any time we're looking at the commit log, we're looking at a list of commits. What if we want to look at a specific commit though? We want to see what changed. What was this commit all about? I want to examine it and see what was committed. Well we do that with git show, so git show followed by a SHA, so let's take a look here at git log --oneline, and get a list of our commits, and then let's show one of them, git show, and let's take a look at this one here, moved sunglasses higher in list of suggested outdoor items.
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  1. 2m 46s
    1. Introduction
      1m 7s
    2. How to use the exercise files
      1m 39s
  2. 20m 24s
    1. Understanding version control
      4m 48s
    2. The history of Git
      7m 58s
    3. About distributed version control
      5m 4s
    4. Who should use Git?
      2m 34s
  3. 26m 12s
    1. Installing Git on a Mac
      3m 44s
    2. Installing Git on Windows
      5m 37s
    3. Installing Git on Linux
      1m 30s
    4. Configuring Git
      7m 29s
    5. Exploring Git auto-completion
      5m 35s
    6. Using Git help
      2m 17s
  4. 15m 49s
    1. Initializing a repository
      1m 58s
    2. Understanding where Git files are stored
      2m 34s
    3. Performing your first commit
      2m 4s
    4. Writing commit messages
      5m 22s
    5. Viewing the commit log
      3m 51s
  5. 17m 44s
    1. Exploring the three-trees architecture
      3m 57s
    2. The Git workflow
      3m 15s
    3. Using hash values (SHA-1)
      4m 7s
    4. Working with the HEAD pointer
      6m 25s
  6. 25m 52s
    1. Adding files
      5m 59s
    2. Editing files
      3m 56s
    3. Viewing changes with diff
      3m 35s
    4. Viewing only staged changes
      2m 28s
    5. Deleting files
      5m 29s
    6. Moving and renaming files
      4m 25s
  7. 19m 18s
    1. Introducing the Explore California web site
      2m 2s
    2. Initializing Git
      3m 48s
    3. Editing the support phone number
      6m 20s
    4. Editing the backpack file name and links
      7m 8s
  8. 38m 45s
    1. Undoing working directory changes
      3m 49s
    2. Unstaging files
      2m 37s
    3. Amending commits
      4m 50s
    4. Retrieving old versions
      4m 7s
    5. Reverting a commit
      3m 12s
    6. Using reset to undo commits
      3m 44s
    7. Demonstrating a soft reset
      4m 8s
    8. Demonstrating a mixed reset
      4m 7s
    9. Demonstrating a hard reset
      5m 8s
    10. Removing untracked files
      3m 3s
  9. 27m 22s
    1. Using .gitignore files
      8m 23s
    2. Understanding what to ignore
      4m 47s
    3. Ignoring files globally
      4m 49s
    4. Ignoring tracked files
      5m 26s
    5. Tracking empty directories
      3m 57s
  10. 26m 51s
    1. Referencing commits
      4m 52s
    2. Exploring tree listings
      3m 46s
    3. Getting more from the commit log
      7m 38s
    4. Viewing commits
      4m 4s
    5. Comparing commits
      6m 31s
  11. 39m 35s
    1. Branching overview
      4m 56s
    2. Viewing and creating branches
      2m 57s
    3. Switching branches
      2m 58s
    4. Creating and switching branches
      4m 53s
    5. Switching branches with uncommitted changes
      3m 26s
    6. Comparing branches
      4m 28s
    7. Renaming branches
      2m 28s
    8. Deleting branches
      4m 18s
    9. Configuring the command prompt to show the branch
      9m 11s
  12. 28m 32s
    1. Merging code
      3m 11s
    2. Using fast-forward merge vs. true merge
      6m 49s
    3. Merging conflicts
      7m 26s
    4. Resolving merge conflicts
      7m 5s
    5. Exploring strategies to reduce merge conflicts
      4m 1s
  13. 14m 34s
    1. Saving changes in the stash
      4m 5s
    2. Viewing stashed changes
      2m 39s
    3. Retrieving stashed changes
      4m 24s
    4. Deleting stashed changes
      3m 26s
  14. 1h 5m
    1. Using local and remote repositories
      6m 38s
    2. Setting up a GitHub account
      5m 39s
    3. Adding a remote repository
      4m 0s
    4. Creating a remote branch
      4m 3s
    5. Cloning a remote repository
      4m 26s
    6. Tracking remote branches
      4m 5s
    7. Pushing changes to a remote repository
      5m 8s
    8. Fetching changes from a remote repository
      5m 47s
    9. Merging in fetched changes
      4m 50s
    10. Checking out remote branches
      3m 22s
    11. Pushing to an updated remote branch
      2m 6s
    12. Deleting a remote branch
      3m 8s
    13. Enabling collaboration
      3m 40s
    14. A collaboration workflow
      8m 43s
  15. 16m 23s
    1. Setting up aliases for common commands
      5m 14s
    2. Using SSH keys for remote login
      2m 56s
    3. Exploring integrated development environments
      1m 4s
    4. Exploring graphical user interfaces
      4m 32s
    5. Understanding Git hosting
      2m 37s
  16. 55s
    1. Goodbye
      55s

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Git Essential Training
6h 26m Beginner Aug 24, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

The course shows how to use Git, the popular open-source version control software, to manage changes to source code and text files. Using a step-by-step approach, author Kevin Skoglund presents the commands that enable efficient code management and reveals the fundamental concepts behind version control systems and the Git architecture. Discover how to track changes to files in a repository, review previous edits, and compare versions of a file; create branches to test new ideas without altering the main project; and merge those changes into the project if they work out. The course begins by demonstrating version control in a single-user, standalone context, before exploring how remote repositories allow users to collaborate on projects effectively.

Topics include:
  • Exploring the history of version control
  • Installing Git on Mac, Windows, and Linux
  • Initializing a repository
  • Writing useful commit messages
  • Understanding the Git three-tree architecture
  • Tracking when files are added, edited, deleted, or moved
  • Viewing change sets and comparing versions
  • Undoing changes and rolling back to previous versions
  • Ignoring changes to select files
  • Creating and working with code branches
  • Merging branches and resolving merge conflicts
  • Stashing changes for later
  • Working with hosted repositories and remote branches
  • Developing an effective collaboration workflow
Subject:
Developer
Software:
Git GitHub
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

Viewing commits

In the last movie, we saw how to get more out of the commit log, so any time we're looking at the commit log, we're looking at a list of commits. What if we want to look at a specific commit though? We want to see what changed. What was this commit all about? I want to examine it and see what was committed. Well we do that with git show, so git show followed by a SHA, so let's take a look here at git log --oneline, and get a list of our commits, and then let's show one of them, git show, and let's take a look at this one here, moved sunglasses higher in list of suggested outdoor items.

So I just paste the SHA right there and then hit Return. It shows me the full SHA for the commit, it shows me the author of the date, the commit message and then gives me a diff of the commit. Remember we saw diffs before when we were trying to see what had changed before we decided what content we wanted to commit. We could diff the two to see what changed. Well, here it's showing us what was committed, the diff between what was there before and what was there after. So sunglasses was added in this spot, and it was removed in this spot. That's what the change was, and it gives me the plus and the minus as well as some coloring to indicate the changes.

I can hit space to make sure that there is nothing else after it, and then Q to quit out of it. So that's it, that's what a show looks like. Let's take a look again in our log, let's take a look at different one, let's say this one where we add a file. Let's see what that looks like, git show, and that SHA, and there it is. It's adding a file, so diff is /dev/null which is computer speak for empty, so it didn't exist before, and now here it is. So compared to nothing, it's all added, all these items are added here, all new.

Same thing if we delete something, it'll of course all be removed, it'll show them all as being minuses. Now that you can also pass in formats here, mainly it has to do with what the format looks like at the top, so let's say format=, and we can have oneline and then let's give it our SHA, I'll just say HEAD, so there is what our HEAD looks like. Let's take a look at HEAD back one, there is the one that's before that, and let's do HEAD back two, or HEAD~3, that shows us the commit that was before that, so we can surf around and go back and look at these commits.

There are some other options you can pass in. You can look through the help documents to find those. Now what we're passing into it is a tree-ish object like before, but git show actually does handle them all a little differently. If we do the help docs git help show, you'll see it takes blobs, trees, tags and commits, so we're mostly working with commits here. If we passed in a tree, it would show the names of what was in the tree, it's equivalent to doing git ls-tree with the name-only option, so it's the exact same thing.

For plain blobs, that's files, it shows the contents. Let me just demonstrate both of those real quick. So let's do git ls-tree master, so there is our list. Here is the one for assets, so I'm just going to grab the first part of that and tell it git show that tree. That's the tree that we want to focus on, that's the tree-ish object we're passing in, it comes up and gives me a list of what's inside there. Again this is same as git ls- tree with the name-only option. Let's do the same thing for our file.

We have our index file here, again, we pass in the tree-ish object, git show, and then we pass in that SHA, and there it is, there's the content. Now I just want to point out that that's not the same thing as saying git show index.html. That's not a tree-ish. We can't pass that in. That is not a reference that it understands as a tree-ish object, so it comes up and it says I don't know what that is. We have to pass in the SHA or some other reference to the file that it can understand a tree-ish.

So I think between viewing the tree, viewing a log file, and viewing the commits, you'll be able to navigate around and really see what's been committed to the repository before. The last thing that's super useful is being able to compare commits, and that's what we'll do in the next movie.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Git Essential Training.


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Q: In the Chapter 10 movie "Configuring the command prompt to show the branch," when I type the function "__git_ps1," I do not get the expected result.
A: The function "__git_ps1" was recently moved to a new file, .git-prompt.sh, as described here: https://github.com/git/git/commit/af31a456b4cd38f2630ed8e556e23954f806a3cc.

We will update the video. In the meantime, you may do the same steps you do for .git-completion.bash, but a second time using ".git-prompt.sh" as shown here: https://github.com/git/git/blob/master/contrib/completion/git-prompt.sh.
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