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Git Essential Training
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Understanding what to ignore


From:

Git Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Understanding what to ignore

In the last movie we saw how we could use the .gitignore file to provide rules to Git about what files ought to be ignored or not tracked. In this movie I want to talk about to the kinds of files that you might want to include in your .gitignore file. First, let's look at some general categories. Compiled source code, the idea here is that you would want to store the uncompiled code but at the compilation you would actually want to do after you pull down the repository. The compiled code might depend on things like the processor that you're running on your computer at the time, so you'd want to compile it fresh so that you would make sure that it was compatible.
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  1. 2m 46s
    1. Introduction
      1m 7s
    2. How to use the exercise files
      1m 39s
  2. 20m 24s
    1. Understanding version control
      4m 48s
    2. The history of Git
      7m 58s
    3. About distributed version control
      5m 4s
    4. Who should use Git?
      2m 34s
  3. 26m 12s
    1. Installing Git on a Mac
      3m 44s
    2. Installing Git on Windows
      5m 37s
    3. Installing Git on Linux
      1m 30s
    4. Configuring Git
      7m 29s
    5. Exploring Git auto-completion
      5m 35s
    6. Using Git help
      2m 17s
  4. 15m 49s
    1. Initializing a repository
      1m 58s
    2. Understanding where Git files are stored
      2m 34s
    3. Performing your first commit
      2m 4s
    4. Writing commit messages
      5m 22s
    5. Viewing the commit log
      3m 51s
  5. 17m 44s
    1. Exploring the three-trees architecture
      3m 57s
    2. The Git workflow
      3m 15s
    3. Using hash values (SHA-1)
      4m 7s
    4. Working with the HEAD pointer
      6m 25s
  6. 25m 52s
    1. Adding files
      5m 59s
    2. Editing files
      3m 56s
    3. Viewing changes with diff
      3m 35s
    4. Viewing only staged changes
      2m 28s
    5. Deleting files
      5m 29s
    6. Moving and renaming files
      4m 25s
  7. 19m 18s
    1. Introducing the Explore California web site
      2m 2s
    2. Initializing Git
      3m 48s
    3. Editing the support phone number
      6m 20s
    4. Editing the backpack file name and links
      7m 8s
  8. 38m 45s
    1. Undoing working directory changes
      3m 49s
    2. Unstaging files
      2m 37s
    3. Amending commits
      4m 50s
    4. Retrieving old versions
      4m 7s
    5. Reverting a commit
      3m 12s
    6. Using reset to undo commits
      3m 44s
    7. Demonstrating a soft reset
      4m 8s
    8. Demonstrating a mixed reset
      4m 7s
    9. Demonstrating a hard reset
      5m 8s
    10. Removing untracked files
      3m 3s
  9. 27m 22s
    1. Using .gitignore files
      8m 23s
    2. Understanding what to ignore
      4m 47s
    3. Ignoring files globally
      4m 49s
    4. Ignoring tracked files
      5m 26s
    5. Tracking empty directories
      3m 57s
  10. 26m 51s
    1. Referencing commits
      4m 52s
    2. Exploring tree listings
      3m 46s
    3. Getting more from the commit log
      7m 38s
    4. Viewing commits
      4m 4s
    5. Comparing commits
      6m 31s
  11. 39m 35s
    1. Branching overview
      4m 56s
    2. Viewing and creating branches
      2m 57s
    3. Switching branches
      2m 58s
    4. Creating and switching branches
      4m 53s
    5. Switching branches with uncommitted changes
      3m 26s
    6. Comparing branches
      4m 28s
    7. Renaming branches
      2m 28s
    8. Deleting branches
      4m 18s
    9. Configuring the command prompt to show the branch
      9m 11s
  12. 28m 32s
    1. Merging code
      3m 11s
    2. Using fast-forward merge vs. true merge
      6m 49s
    3. Merging conflicts
      7m 26s
    4. Resolving merge conflicts
      7m 5s
    5. Exploring strategies to reduce merge conflicts
      4m 1s
  13. 14m 34s
    1. Saving changes in the stash
      4m 5s
    2. Viewing stashed changes
      2m 39s
    3. Retrieving stashed changes
      4m 24s
    4. Deleting stashed changes
      3m 26s
  14. 1h 5m
    1. Using local and remote repositories
      6m 38s
    2. Setting up a GitHub account
      5m 39s
    3. Adding a remote repository
      4m 0s
    4. Creating a remote branch
      4m 3s
    5. Cloning a remote repository
      4m 26s
    6. Tracking remote branches
      4m 5s
    7. Pushing changes to a remote repository
      5m 8s
    8. Fetching changes from a remote repository
      5m 47s
    9. Merging in fetched changes
      4m 50s
    10. Checking out remote branches
      3m 22s
    11. Pushing to an updated remote branch
      2m 6s
    12. Deleting a remote branch
      3m 8s
    13. Enabling collaboration
      3m 40s
    14. A collaboration workflow
      8m 43s
  15. 16m 23s
    1. Setting up aliases for common commands
      5m 14s
    2. Using SSH keys for remote login
      2m 56s
    3. Exploring integrated development environments
      1m 4s
    4. Exploring graphical user interfaces
      4m 32s
    5. Understanding Git hosting
      2m 37s
  16. 55s
    1. Goodbye
      55s

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Git Essential Training
6h 26m Beginner Aug 24, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

The course shows how to use Git, the popular open-source version control software, to manage changes to source code and text files. Using a step-by-step approach, author Kevin Skoglund presents the commands that enable efficient code management and reveals the fundamental concepts behind version control systems and the Git architecture. Discover how to track changes to files in a repository, review previous edits, and compare versions of a file; create branches to test new ideas without altering the main project; and merge those changes into the project if they work out. The course begins by demonstrating version control in a single-user, standalone context, before exploring how remote repositories allow users to collaborate on projects effectively.

Topics include:
  • Exploring the history of version control
  • Installing Git on Mac, Windows, and Linux
  • Initializing a repository
  • Writing useful commit messages
  • Understanding the Git three-tree architecture
  • Tracking when files are added, edited, deleted, or moved
  • Viewing change sets and comparing versions
  • Undoing changes and rolling back to previous versions
  • Ignoring changes to select files
  • Creating and working with code branches
  • Merging branches and resolving merge conflicts
  • Stashing changes for later
  • Working with hosted repositories and remote branches
  • Developing an effective collaboration workflow
Subject:
Developer
Software:
Git GitHub
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

Understanding what to ignore

In the last movie we saw how we could use the .gitignore file to provide rules to Git about what files ought to be ignored or not tracked. In this movie I want to talk about to the kinds of files that you might want to include in your .gitignore file. First, let's look at some general categories. Compiled source code, the idea here is that you would want to store the uncompiled code but at the compilation you would actually want to do after you pull down the repository. The compiled code might depend on things like the processor that you're running on your computer at the time, so you'd want to compile it fresh so that you would make sure that it was compatible.

You would also want to ignore packages and compressed files, so that's files that end in .zip, .gz, for example, it's also disk image files, those are typically files that you're not using in the project itself. For example, a zipped files is usually on its way somewhere else. You're zipping it up so that you can download it or send it to someone, it's not usable in itself, it has to be uncompressed before it's usable. And you don't gain any advantage by having a compressed, Git does its own compression, so you're not helping Git out by compressing those files.

The third one would be logs and databases. The idea here is files that change often. So while we're working on our project, it's logging information to a log file. We don't want every time you hit get status, we don't want it to come up and tell us about those changes to the log file. And then operating system generated files, these are files that have nothing to do with our project, they are files that the operating system is using to keep track of things. Maybe it's the window position on the desktop, or maybe it's things that are in the trashcan. We want to ignore those, we don't want to have those tracked in our repository because they are really not about the project.

And the last general category would be user-uploaded assets. Now this really applies mostly if you're talking about working with web projects. Let's imagine for a moment that we have a PHP project, and we have a web form where a user can upload an image. Well, as we're developing and we're testing our code, we might try uploading images, and we would tell our PHP code, hey, once you receive an image you have to store it in this directory inside the project. So it stores in that directory and then Git comes up and says, "Hey, I noticed there is a new image file, do you want to add it to the repository?" We don't, we want to ignore all those files, all the tests that we do, everything is uploaded in those image directory's user-uploaded content, we just want it to ignore.

That is dynamic and changing in the same way the log files and databases are changing. Now those are some general categories, but I'd like to give you some more specific ideas as well, and there are some great resources for this on GitHub. So if you go on GitHub there's two URLs that you want to take a look at. The first is a help article just about ignoring files that has some good tips in it. And then the second is there is actually a github repository called gitignore which has some great ideas in there as well. Let's take a look at both of these. So the first of these is the github help article about ignoring files, and it has also some information just about ignoring files generally, including the things that we just learned about gitignore.

But right here is what I want you to see: "Some good rules to add to this file are:" and you can see they've broken out Compiled source, Packages, Logs and databases, OS generated files. So it gives you a list of some good and general ideas. Now this is probably overkill for most people because you probably aren't going to come across even half of these depending on what language you are using. This is really a very general list. To give more specific and look at your specific purposes, the gitignore repository is a great place to look. If we scan down here, you'll see that there is a list of all the different files that are in here, these are files in the repository, and each one is a gitignore file that's specific to a certain language.

So, for example, if you are working with Django, you can click on that, and you can see here is the list of files that it thinks would be a good idea to ignore. If we come over here, let's scroll down to another one. Let's say that we're working Java, well here's a Java.gitignore file. If we scroll down a little further here's one for Perl, let's click on that, and now we see the list of files that typically would come up that you would want to ignore if you are working on a Perl project. Now it's not just the languages of the applications that you might be using, there is also a folder here called Global, that has a lot of stuff about operating systems or applications that you might be using.

So for example, if you are on OS X, here's a list of the files that are good to ignore for OS X. If you're on Windows, then you can scroll down here, and here's a list of the ones that are good to ignore on Windows. So it's a great resource for you to comb through and figure out the components that you might want to put in your gitignore file. Of course, the other simpler way to do it is just to start creating your project, and as files pop up that you want to ignore you can just take a second and add those to the gitignore file.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Git Essential Training.


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Q: In the Chapter 10 movie "Configuring the command prompt to show the branch," when I type the function "__git_ps1," I do not get the expected result.
A: The function "__git_ps1" was recently moved to a new file, .git-prompt.sh, as described here: https://github.com/git/git/commit/af31a456b4cd38f2630ed8e556e23954f806a3cc.

We will update the video. In the meantime, you may do the same steps you do for .git-completion.bash, but a second time using ".git-prompt.sh" as shown here: https://github.com/git/git/blob/master/contrib/completion/git-prompt.sh.
Q: When I use the code the instructor advises in the above video ("git config
--global user.name "Nelda Street"), I still get an "Illegal Instruction"
error. I have OS 10.6.8. Am I doing something wrong?
A: The current installer version of git isn't compatible with older Mac OS versions.
 
https://code.google.com/p/git-osx-installer/issues/detail?id=96
 
The workaround solutions people offer are:
 
1. To add "-mmacosx-version-min=10.6" as described here:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14268887/what-is-the-illegal-instruction-4-error-and-why-does-mmacosx-version-min-10
 
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10177038/illegal-instruction-4-shows-up-in-os-x-lion
 
2. Or to use the version of git that comes with Xcode, or to use homebrew to install git instead.
http://superuser.com/questions/697144/installed-git-not-sure-how-to-get-it-working
 
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