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Git Essential Training
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Ignoring files globally


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Git Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Ignoring files globally

We've seen how we can tell Git which files that auto ignore inside of our working directory, and we did that by putting a gitignore file in the root of our working directory and even storing and committing that to our repository. But what if we find ourselves ignoring the same files over and over and all of our different projects in each of our different Git repositories? Or as we saw in the last movie some of the files that we want to ignore are operating specific files, we want to ignore them all the time, because they are just generally the kind of thing that we don't want to track.
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  1. 2m 46s
    1. Introduction
      1m 7s
    2. How to use the exercise files
      1m 39s
  2. 20m 24s
    1. Understanding version control
      4m 48s
    2. The history of Git
      7m 58s
    3. About distributed version control
      5m 4s
    4. Who should use Git?
      2m 34s
  3. 26m 12s
    1. Installing Git on a Mac
      3m 44s
    2. Installing Git on Windows
      5m 37s
    3. Installing Git on Linux
      1m 30s
    4. Configuring Git
      7m 29s
    5. Exploring Git auto-completion
      5m 35s
    6. Using Git help
      2m 17s
  4. 15m 49s
    1. Initializing a repository
      1m 58s
    2. Understanding where Git files are stored
      2m 34s
    3. Performing your first commit
      2m 4s
    4. Writing commit messages
      5m 22s
    5. Viewing the commit log
      3m 51s
  5. 17m 44s
    1. Exploring the three-trees architecture
      3m 57s
    2. The Git workflow
      3m 15s
    3. Using hash values (SHA-1)
      4m 7s
    4. Working with the HEAD pointer
      6m 25s
  6. 25m 52s
    1. Adding files
      5m 59s
    2. Editing files
      3m 56s
    3. Viewing changes with diff
      3m 35s
    4. Viewing only staged changes
      2m 28s
    5. Deleting files
      5m 29s
    6. Moving and renaming files
      4m 25s
  7. 19m 18s
    1. Introducing the Explore California web site
      2m 2s
    2. Initializing Git
      3m 48s
    3. Editing the support phone number
      6m 20s
    4. Editing the backpack file name and links
      7m 8s
  8. 38m 45s
    1. Undoing working directory changes
      3m 49s
    2. Unstaging files
      2m 37s
    3. Amending commits
      4m 50s
    4. Retrieving old versions
      4m 7s
    5. Reverting a commit
      3m 12s
    6. Using reset to undo commits
      3m 44s
    7. Demonstrating a soft reset
      4m 8s
    8. Demonstrating a mixed reset
      4m 7s
    9. Demonstrating a hard reset
      5m 8s
    10. Removing untracked files
      3m 3s
  9. 27m 22s
    1. Using .gitignore files
      8m 23s
    2. Understanding what to ignore
      4m 47s
    3. Ignoring files globally
      4m 49s
    4. Ignoring tracked files
      5m 26s
    5. Tracking empty directories
      3m 57s
  10. 26m 51s
    1. Referencing commits
      4m 52s
    2. Exploring tree listings
      3m 46s
    3. Getting more from the commit log
      7m 38s
    4. Viewing commits
      4m 4s
    5. Comparing commits
      6m 31s
  11. 39m 35s
    1. Branching overview
      4m 56s
    2. Viewing and creating branches
      2m 57s
    3. Switching branches
      2m 58s
    4. Creating and switching branches
      4m 53s
    5. Switching branches with uncommitted changes
      3m 26s
    6. Comparing branches
      4m 28s
    7. Renaming branches
      2m 28s
    8. Deleting branches
      4m 18s
    9. Configuring the command prompt to show the branch
      9m 11s
  12. 28m 32s
    1. Merging code
      3m 11s
    2. Using fast-forward merge vs. true merge
      6m 49s
    3. Merging conflicts
      7m 26s
    4. Resolving merge conflicts
      7m 5s
    5. Exploring strategies to reduce merge conflicts
      4m 1s
  13. 14m 34s
    1. Saving changes in the stash
      4m 5s
    2. Viewing stashed changes
      2m 39s
    3. Retrieving stashed changes
      4m 24s
    4. Deleting stashed changes
      3m 26s
  14. 1h 5m
    1. Using local and remote repositories
      6m 38s
    2. Setting up a GitHub account
      5m 39s
    3. Adding a remote repository
      4m 0s
    4. Creating a remote branch
      4m 3s
    5. Cloning a remote repository
      4m 26s
    6. Tracking remote branches
      4m 5s
    7. Pushing changes to a remote repository
      5m 8s
    8. Fetching changes from a remote repository
      5m 47s
    9. Merging in fetched changes
      4m 50s
    10. Checking out remote branches
      3m 22s
    11. Pushing to an updated remote branch
      2m 6s
    12. Deleting a remote branch
      3m 8s
    13. Enabling collaboration
      3m 40s
    14. A collaboration workflow
      8m 43s
  15. 16m 23s
    1. Setting up aliases for common commands
      5m 14s
    2. Using SSH keys for remote login
      2m 56s
    3. Exploring integrated development environments
      1m 4s
    4. Exploring graphical user interfaces
      4m 32s
    5. Understanding Git hosting
      2m 37s
  16. 55s
    1. Goodbye
      55s

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Git Essential Training
6h 26m Beginner Aug 24, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

The course shows how to use Git, the popular open-source version control software, to manage changes to source code and text files. Using a step-by-step approach, author Kevin Skoglund presents the commands that enable efficient code management and reveals the fundamental concepts behind version control systems and the Git architecture. Discover how to track changes to files in a repository, review previous edits, and compare versions of a file; create branches to test new ideas without altering the main project; and merge those changes into the project if they work out. The course begins by demonstrating version control in a single-user, standalone context, before exploring how remote repositories allow users to collaborate on projects effectively.

Topics include:
  • Exploring the history of version control
  • Installing Git on Mac, Windows, and Linux
  • Initializing a repository
  • Writing useful commit messages
  • Understanding the Git three-tree architecture
  • Tracking when files are added, edited, deleted, or moved
  • Viewing change sets and comparing versions
  • Undoing changes and rolling back to previous versions
  • Ignoring changes to select files
  • Creating and working with code branches
  • Merging branches and resolving merge conflicts
  • Stashing changes for later
  • Working with hosted repositories and remote branches
  • Developing an effective collaboration workflow
Subject:
Developer
Software:
Git GitHub
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

Ignoring files globally

We've seen how we can tell Git which files that auto ignore inside of our working directory, and we did that by putting a gitignore file in the root of our working directory and even storing and committing that to our repository. But what if we find ourselves ignoring the same files over and over and all of our different projects in each of our different Git repositories? Or as we saw in the last movie some of the files that we want to ignore are operating specific files, we want to ignore them all the time, because they are just generally the kind of thing that we don't want to track.

Well, to do this, we're going to configure Git to globally ignore some files. That means if we ignore those files in all repositories, not just in any one specific repository, and the settings for this global ignore are not going to be inside the repository, they're going to live outside of it, right? It's part of our git configuration, not our project configuration, but our git configuration. So what that means is it's not going to be stored in the repository. People who use our repositories, if someone downloads it and starts working with it, they're not going to get it, and so we've traded repository specific ignores for user specific ignores. They exist only on my machine. Now that's good because it means that I can configure exactly the way I like it, I can ignore the files that I want to ignore, and then we don't have to worry about what someone else wants to ignore, okay? I can just ignore my preferences.

Now that can be good, for example, if I'm working on a Mac and someone else using their repository is working on Windows, then we can each have our own gitignore files that are specific to our operating system. We don't have to share those. But on the other hand, if I've told it to ignore all log files, files ending in .log, and that's in my global config but not the project config, and then someone else starts using the repository, then they're going to always be prompted by Git to try and track the log file, that is unless they also ignore the log file.

You just want to keep in mind the difference and consider whether you want an ignored file to be listed in your user-specific ignores or your repository-specific ignores. Okay, so how to actually do the ignoring? Well, we do that using git config. We saw this back when we were setting up Git at the beginning. We do git config with the global option and then core.excludesfile, and we tell it where the file is. So the file can be named anything we want, we can locate it wherever we want, we just have to tell Git in its config file, hey, this is the file you should use for globally ignoring things. Let's try creating one.

So right now I'm inside my explore_ california directory, where I'm going to put my global ignore is in my user directory, right here. That's where my git config was before, if you remember ls -la and inside Users/kevinskoglund, you'll see that's where I've got my global gitconfig file. So I'm going to put the gitignore file right alongside it. You can create a number of different ways, you can use a Text Editor. I'm going to use the nano Text Editor that's in Mac OS X and in Unix--it's just a real simple Text Editor--and tell it that it ought to go to Users/kevinskoglund and create a file called .gitignore_global.

Now again, you can call it anything you want, so we'll be just call it gitignore. I'm going to call it gitignore_global, so it is very clear that it's a global file. So inside that file then we can put whatever things we want to ignore. Because I'm on a Mac, the things that I want to ignore most often are .DS_Store and .Trashes and .Spotlight-V100, those are just a couple of things that often pop up that need to get ignored, and there are files that the operating system is using to keep track of various things.

So I'm just going to go ahead and close that now, say yes, and let's save it to that file name that I gave it. And now if we check again la / Users/kevinskoglund, there we are. Now you can see that that file is there, and then the last thing I need to do is tell git config about that file, so git config --global core.excludesfile and then the path to the file. Let me just clear the screen, so it's clear. The short version in Unix, it just uses this Tilde that represents your user directory so you could say ~/.gitignore _global, that's what I would probably do, but you can also do it with a full path, which is what you would do on Windows, and we'll put in the full thing, kevingskoglund, that's the full path to get there.

So when we hit Return it'll add to our config file. If we take a look at that config file cat /Users/kevinskoglund/.gitconfig, we can say that it added that excludes file right here. So, now that's the file that we'll be using for global gitignores, so I'll ignore those files in every repository on my machine.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Git Essential Training.


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Q: In the Chapter 10 movie "Configuring the command prompt to show the branch," when I type the function "__git_ps1," I do not get the expected result.
A: The function "__git_ps1" was recently moved to a new file, .git-prompt.sh, as described here: https://github.com/git/git/commit/af31a456b4cd38f2630ed8e556e23954f806a3cc.

We will update the video. In the meantime, you may do the same steps you do for .git-completion.bash, but a second time using ".git-prompt.sh" as shown here: https://github.com/git/git/blob/master/contrib/completion/git-prompt.sh.
Q: When I use the code the instructor advises in the above video ("git config
--global user.name "Nelda Street"), I still get an "Illegal Instruction"
error. I have OS 10.6.8. Am I doing something wrong?
A: The current installer version of git isn't compatible with older Mac OS versions.
 
https://code.google.com/p/git-osx-installer/issues/detail?id=96
 
The workaround solutions people offer are:
 
1. To add "-mmacosx-version-min=10.6" as described here:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14268887/what-is-the-illegal-instruction-4-error-and-why-does-mmacosx-version-min-10
 
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10177038/illegal-instruction-4-shows-up-in-os-x-lion
 
2. Or to use the version of git that comes with Xcode, or to use homebrew to install git instead.
http://superuser.com/questions/697144/installed-git-not-sure-how-to-get-it-working
 
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