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Configuring Git


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Git Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Configuring Git

In this movie we are going to learn how to do some basic configuration of Git in order to get us started. The first thing we need to know is that there's three places that get stores configuration information and depends on how widely we want those configurations to apply. The first and largest is System level configuration, that is configurations that ought to apply to every user of this computer. Now each user, of course, can overwrite it with their own, but these are going to be default configurations. Now in truth you won't use this very often. It's much easier and much better to set it up on a per user basis, but I just want you to know that it exists.
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  1. 2m 46s
    1. Introduction
      1m 7s
    2. How to use the exercise files
      1m 39s
  2. 20m 24s
    1. Understanding version control
      4m 48s
    2. The history of Git
      7m 58s
    3. About distributed version control
      5m 4s
    4. Who should use Git?
      2m 34s
  3. 26m 12s
    1. Installing Git on a Mac
      3m 44s
    2. Installing Git on Windows
      5m 37s
    3. Installing Git on Linux
      1m 30s
    4. Configuring Git
      7m 29s
    5. Exploring Git auto-completion
      5m 35s
    6. Using Git help
      2m 17s
  4. 15m 49s
    1. Initializing a repository
      1m 58s
    2. Understanding where Git files are stored
      2m 34s
    3. Performing your first commit
      2m 4s
    4. Writing commit messages
      5m 22s
    5. Viewing the commit log
      3m 51s
  5. 17m 44s
    1. Exploring the three-trees architecture
      3m 57s
    2. The Git workflow
      3m 15s
    3. Using hash values (SHA-1)
      4m 7s
    4. Working with the HEAD pointer
      6m 25s
  6. 25m 52s
    1. Adding files
      5m 59s
    2. Editing files
      3m 56s
    3. Viewing changes with diff
      3m 35s
    4. Viewing only staged changes
      2m 28s
    5. Deleting files
      5m 29s
    6. Moving and renaming files
      4m 25s
  7. 19m 18s
    1. Introducing the Explore California web site
      2m 2s
    2. Initializing Git
      3m 48s
    3. Editing the support phone number
      6m 20s
    4. Editing the backpack file name and links
      7m 8s
  8. 38m 45s
    1. Undoing working directory changes
      3m 49s
    2. Unstaging files
      2m 37s
    3. Amending commits
      4m 50s
    4. Retrieving old versions
      4m 7s
    5. Reverting a commit
      3m 12s
    6. Using reset to undo commits
      3m 44s
    7. Demonstrating a soft reset
      4m 8s
    8. Demonstrating a mixed reset
      4m 7s
    9. Demonstrating a hard reset
      5m 8s
    10. Removing untracked files
      3m 3s
  9. 27m 22s
    1. Using .gitignore files
      8m 23s
    2. Understanding what to ignore
      4m 47s
    3. Ignoring files globally
      4m 49s
    4. Ignoring tracked files
      5m 26s
    5. Tracking empty directories
      3m 57s
  10. 26m 51s
    1. Referencing commits
      4m 52s
    2. Exploring tree listings
      3m 46s
    3. Getting more from the commit log
      7m 38s
    4. Viewing commits
      4m 4s
    5. Comparing commits
      6m 31s
  11. 39m 35s
    1. Branching overview
      4m 56s
    2. Viewing and creating branches
      2m 57s
    3. Switching branches
      2m 58s
    4. Creating and switching branches
      4m 53s
    5. Switching branches with uncommitted changes
      3m 26s
    6. Comparing branches
      4m 28s
    7. Renaming branches
      2m 28s
    8. Deleting branches
      4m 18s
    9. Configuring the command prompt to show the branch
      9m 11s
  12. 28m 32s
    1. Merging code
      3m 11s
    2. Using fast-forward merge vs. true merge
      6m 49s
    3. Merging conflicts
      7m 26s
    4. Resolving merge conflicts
      7m 5s
    5. Exploring strategies to reduce merge conflicts
      4m 1s
  13. 14m 34s
    1. Saving changes in the stash
      4m 5s
    2. Viewing stashed changes
      2m 39s
    3. Retrieving stashed changes
      4m 24s
    4. Deleting stashed changes
      3m 26s
  14. 1h 5m
    1. Using local and remote repositories
      6m 38s
    2. Setting up a GitHub account
      5m 39s
    3. Adding a remote repository
      4m 0s
    4. Creating a remote branch
      4m 3s
    5. Cloning a remote repository
      4m 26s
    6. Tracking remote branches
      4m 5s
    7. Pushing changes to a remote repository
      5m 8s
    8. Fetching changes from a remote repository
      5m 47s
    9. Merging in fetched changes
      4m 50s
    10. Checking out remote branches
      3m 22s
    11. Pushing to an updated remote branch
      2m 6s
    12. Deleting a remote branch
      3m 8s
    13. Enabling collaboration
      3m 40s
    14. A collaboration workflow
      8m 43s
  15. 16m 23s
    1. Setting up aliases for common commands
      5m 14s
    2. Using SSH keys for remote login
      2m 56s
    3. Exploring integrated development environments
      1m 4s
    4. Exploring graphical user interfaces
      4m 32s
    5. Understanding Git hosting
      2m 37s
  16. 55s
    1. Goodbye
      55s

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Git Essential Training
6h 26m Beginner Aug 24, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

The course shows how to use Git, the popular open-source version control software, to manage changes to source code and text files. Using a step-by-step approach, author Kevin Skoglund presents the commands that enable efficient code management and reveals the fundamental concepts behind version control systems and the Git architecture. Discover how to track changes to files in a repository, review previous edits, and compare versions of a file; create branches to test new ideas without altering the main project; and merge those changes into the project if they work out. The course begins by demonstrating version control in a single-user, standalone context, before exploring how remote repositories allow users to collaborate on projects effectively.

Topics include:
  • Exploring the history of version control
  • Installing Git on Mac, Windows, and Linux
  • Initializing a repository
  • Writing useful commit messages
  • Understanding the Git three-tree architecture
  • Tracking when files are added, edited, deleted, or moved
  • Viewing change sets and comparing versions
  • Undoing changes and rolling back to previous versions
  • Ignoring changes to select files
  • Creating and working with code branches
  • Merging branches and resolving merge conflicts
  • Stashing changes for later
  • Working with hosted repositories and remote branches
  • Developing an effective collaboration workflow
Subject:
Developer
Software:
Git GitHub
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

Configuring Git

In this movie we are going to learn how to do some basic configuration of Git in order to get us started. The first thing we need to know is that there's three places that get stores configuration information and depends on how widely we want those configurations to apply. The first and largest is System level configuration, that is configurations that ought to apply to every user of this computer. Now each user, of course, can overwrite it with their own, but these are going to be default configurations. Now in truth you won't use this very often. It's much easier and much better to set it up on a per user basis, but I just want you to know that it exists.

On Unix that's going to be inside the etc directory, in a file called gitconfig. It's also going to be in the same file, inside the same folder on Windows, but it will be stored in a different place. Most likely it will be inside your program files, inside the application for Git. Now the most useful place to store configurations is going to be User level configurations. These are going to apply to a single user, which most of us, most of the time are working on a single-user machine and so we can have our single-user configuration. On Unix, that's going to be in your home directory, inside a file called .gitconfig.

On Windows, it's also going to be in your User directory that's the HOME directory .gitconfig. If you're not familiar with where your HOME directory is chances are it's going to be inside your Documents and Settings folder, and you should find your username there, and inside that username folder, that's where you will see gitconfig. And then the third place that we can store configurations is on a project-by-project basis. So in a single project we can have configurations that apply only to that project. Now most configurations, you are probably don't want to use from project-to-project, and you want to put them in the User configuration.

But if there is something specific to a single project you can put it inside of the project, look for a folder inside there called .git, and then inside there we have file called config. Now the names of these configuration files vary depending on the location, and some of that is just because of some of the different conventions that Unix uses, and that's what this follows. But if you know generally where to look for these files, the fact that their all named slightly different, shouldn't throw you off, they should stick out, you should be able to find them. Now we can go in and directly edit these files and put in our configuration information, but that requires us to know something about the format of those files, we don't have to do that.

Git gives us some commands that we can use to make editing these configurations easy. For all three of them, it's going to be git config, followed by a modifier that tells at what level we want to do the configuration, and then followed by the configuration itself that we want to do. So if we want to do a system-wide configuration, then it's --system at the end, if it's User level then that's --global, don't let that throw you, global doesn't mean system, it means global to the user, and then if we don't have any modifier then it's just on a single project basis.

So that's what the command looks like, and that tells it how to direct it, what are the kinds of configurations that we can set? Well, let's set a few. So here I am in my command line. You'll want to make sure that you're there as well, it doesn't matter where we're located because we are going to be doing configuration that's global. So as long as we are logged in as a user, we will be making edits to our global user file. So we can call git config and then --global, and then whatever we want to configure. Well, the first thing we need to configure is our user.name, so user.name, space, and then in double quotes put in your name.

So obviously you've used your name and not my name and then when you are done hit Return and Git added it to the config file. Let's add another one, git config --global user.email, space, and then you can put in your email address there. I am going to put in just a fake one here rather than give out my real email address, someone@nowhere.com but you will put in your real one. Now if you want to see these configurations, you can say git config --list, and it will then pair it back to the list of configurations that it has set for you, or if you want to look at a specific one, you can say user.name, and it returns just that one, same thing, user.email, and it returns the email address.

So we can take a look, we have the ability to set them, and we have the ability to retrieve them and look at what they are. Now let's look at where those are located. I am inside my user directory already right here. On Unix, you can do cd space followed by the tilde, and that'll make sure that you are in your user directory, and let's do ls -la, for Windows users that's going to be dir, that will show you the directory listing, and you will right here is a file called .gitconfig. Now there are number of ways that you can open up this file, the fact that it is a dot file means that it's going to try to hide it from you, you are not going to see it when you look at it in the finder, you are only going to see it from the command line here, that's part of what that dot does.

One good way to take a look at it real quick with Unix is just to use the cat command, cat .gitconfig, I'll just clear my screen so you can see, and there is the file. That's what it actually looks like inside there. So this is the minimum that you need to configure and to start working with git. You will come back to this file and add other configurations over time. I want to show you two more useful ones now. The first is to tell Git what Text Editor you will be using. This allows Git to open up text that needs editing in that editor by default.

There are times when Git is going to want to have you edit a message and so it'll pop up that message in a Text Editor, let you change it, and then close it. And Git will go ahead with what it was going to do. The way we do that is with git config --global and then core.editor and then after that in quotes let's put the name of the editor that we want to use. So if you like using Unix's nano, you can put that there, you can use vim, or emacs, if you are on Windows, you can use notepad.exe, that comes by default with Windows.

I'd like to use TextMates, so I am going to be using M A T E, which is a little program that TextMate provides that sits inside Unix, and it can then launch TextMate. In addition to just launching it though, we need to provide a couple of options with it, which is the -w option, which says, hey after you launch it, wait until TextMate is done before you keep going with what you were going to do Unix, so we need that W option otherwise Unix will open it and then just keep going further as I was doing without waiting for you to finish the message, and then l1 also tells it to start at line 1.

So wait and put the cursor at line 1 of the message. If you have a different text editor you'd like to use, you can try plugging it in here or you can Google around and find out what configuration other people are using, so they can use that program. Okay, so now that I've got that in there, that will add it to my config file, the second configuration we will add now is to tell Git to use colors when outputting things to the command line. If we don't use this, it will just give us monochromatic text, just one single color. Instead, by setting this option, it will allow Git to try and use colors like red and green and blue to help illustrate what point it's trying to get across, what information it's trying to convey.

So we can use git config --global, and then we are going to say color.ui set to true. So that's it, tell it to color the user interface. Once we do that, cat .gitconfig, you can see now our config file has a few more options listed. We will come back and add more later, but this is enough to get us started.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Git Essential Training.


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Q: In the Chapter 10 movie "Configuring the command prompt to show the branch," when I type the function "__git_ps1," I do not get the expected result.
A: The function "__git_ps1" was recently moved to a new file, .git-prompt.sh, as described here: https://github.com/git/git/commit/af31a456b4cd38f2630ed8e556e23954f806a3cc.

We will update the video. In the meantime, you may do the same steps you do for .git-completion.bash, but a second time using ".git-prompt.sh" as shown here: https://github.com/git/git/blob/master/contrib/completion/git-prompt.sh.
Q: When I use the code the instructor advises in the above video ("git config
--global user.name "Nelda Street"), I still get an "Illegal Instruction"
error. I have OS 10.6.8. Am I doing something wrong?
A: The current installer version of git isn't compatible with older Mac OS versions.
 
https://code.google.com/p/git-osx-installer/issues/detail?id=96
 
The workaround solutions people offer are:
 
1. To add "-mmacosx-version-min=10.6" as described here:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14268887/what-is-the-illegal-instruction-4-error-and-why-does-mmacosx-version-min-10
 
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10177038/illegal-instruction-4-shows-up-in-os-x-lion
 
2. Or to use the version of git that comes with Xcode, or to use homebrew to install git instead.
http://superuser.com/questions/697144/installed-git-not-sure-how-to-get-it-working
 
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