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One of the challenges that was faced by animators very early on was bringing their characters to a complete stop. Because what would happen would be, they would have these wonderful character animating and then they would bring them into a hold and they would feel like they had just gone flat. So, then they realized that the solution was not to end all the motion at the same time, that different things move at different speeds. As we saw in the previous section, different things stop at different times. So when it came to stopping a character, this became known as a moving hold.
So here is an example of one without a moving hold. This guy just comes to a stop, more or less at the same time. You'll see all the parts of the body. Hitting their end pose right there. And if we look at the timeline, you see everything's stopping on frame 26. It's not exactly the end of the world, but it does look a little stiff. And it does feel robotic no matter how slowly you slow into or how gently you slow into that final pose, it's still all hitting that at the same time, frame 26.
So how to get around that? Solution was, to have different parts of the body stop moving at different times. And you see the result. Now of course I've cheated a little bit because I've given this fellow a cape and I've given him eyes, as a proper character should have, of course. So, let's have a look at that again. And you'll see the hands, the big change is on the hands. They don't just clunk to a stop on frame 26. They keep moving as you would expect in reality. One hand will usually stop before the other.
And then, the cape. Being subject to a little more drag, we'll overshoot a little further, maybe wobble a couple of times. And, and you know, an eye blink or two doesn't hurt to keep the character alive. Now on this fellow we had all of five key frames. The extra cost of getting this extra performance is the addition of three more key frames. And a little bit of business, of course, with the, with the cape. So what you see here is more or less the same four key frames, but we've overshot the arms, and then we've moved beyond, so that they drop down a little bit and very slowly settle.
I'm going to go through. Frame by frame and you see his physical right arm, that's this arm here. Still moving, stops, now the other arm, this one is also still moving. Even now you'll see right there, it's still in motion. And between that and the cape, that's far more realistic far richer animation now. I don't expect every character to have a cape, I do expect most of them to have hair and clothing. So you would have a, maybe a person with loose pants or a t-shirt or a skirt or a hat, there's any number of visual elements that you can use to drag to a full stop slightly slower than the head or the torso.
So, let's see how you would apply, and very simple version of this, which can still be effective. And in this case, I have a scene of a poor cow. It's been a long day. He's had a bit of heat stroke, so he's going to faint. So, what happens with the tail is. The simplest form of moving hold for the body and the head more or less come to a full stop at the same frame. But I wouldn't expect the tail to do that so the tail keeps moving. And let's go into the cow and have a look so we can see the exact point at which this happens. He hits the ground here and squishes to a stop on frame 17 but the tail keeps moving.
So it's just dragging by about one frame, the main body of the tail. And then the end of the tail has from here, frame 18, all the way through to frame 24, the saddle. It's an incredibly simple effect. And it goes a long way to, just fooling your eye into realizing, you know what? This isn't just a bunch of key frames coming together at one point. So this is the final example, of not a moving hold but a hold. An actual idle cycle, and these are more common now especially with games.
So as you can see we have some offset key frames. And let's see how this works out. We have the character doing a little breathe cycle, there's a couple of things happening here to help make it more fluid. The arms are opposing the body so as the body moves down the arms move up and vice versa. And there's a slight opposing action so the arms are offset. The right arm is one frame ahead of the body and the left arm one frame behind the body. And that is enough, just to get us that slight illusion of natural movement.
It's actually that simple. And I could easily move these back into place. And you can see just that slight change alone is enough to make it look more mechanical. I can move them in the opposite direction. And you get that amazingly subtle illusion of natural breathing again. So, that's the techniques used to do an idle or a basic hold as well as for moving holds.
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