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This weekly course covers the most common questions videographers encounter when shooting and editing with DSLR cameras, from choosing a frame size and frame rate to understanding moiré. Authors Rich Harrington and Robbie Carman will also help you understand the impacts of compression and the difference between cropped (or micro 4/3rds) and full-sized sensors in cameras, and much more. This continual FAQ guide is a handy way to find the answers to the questions that plague you the most.
Robert Carman: Okay Rich, so we've shot a clip of me pouring some water, or some iced tea rather. And now what we've done is we've brought that clip onto the, our computer here. Rich Harrington: Yep. Robert Carman: And we're in Final Cut Pro 10, and let's just go ahead and conform this clip down to 24 frames, or 23.98 frames per second, so we get that beautiful organic slow motion. Rich Harrington: Yeah. Well, the first thing that you need to realize is you want to actually set up a project correctly. Robert Carman: Okay. Rich Harrington: So, I'm going to make a new proejct here. And by default, Final Cut's going to make that project based on the first clip you drag in.
And that can be problematic here, right? Robert Carman: Right. So if I'm dropping a clip that was shot at 60 frames, or 5994. into a sequence. It's going to make that sequence 5994, so when I try to conform, what am I conforming to? Well, 5994. Rich Harrington: 5994, doesn't really work, does it? Robert Carman: Right. Rich Harrington: So I'm going to choose Custom, and 720p. Robert Carman: Mm-hm. Rich Harrington: 23.98. Robert Carman: Right. Rich Harrington: Yeah, lot of folks, like, wait a minute, 24p, 23.98. 23.98 for most video uses. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: 24P for true film. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: It's all good. And I've got that set, so I'll click OK. Robert Carman: Yep.
Rich Harrington: And I get my new sequence. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: Now, I've already loaded the clip and I marked out one of those takes. You know, just standard, final cut stuff, mark your in and your out. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: And we drag that into the timeline. Well, right now, it's going to play in real time. It's actually dropping frames because it's taking that 60p, and it's making it 24p by throwing away frames. Robert Carman: Right, and it's obviously not slowed down. I mean it's, in fact, it looks a little juttery. Rich Harrington: Yeah. So we'll select the clip. And we'll click over here and choose to conform the speed.
Robert Carman: Okay. Rich Harrington: And what's going to happen there is it's going to actually adjust the clip and conform it out. So we've chosen to re-time it from the re-timing menu there. Robert Carman: Okay. Rich Harrington: And in this case, 60p to 24 is 40% slower. Robert Carman: Okay. Rich Harrington: Now, you don't even have to do the math. It does it for you. And when we play that, you're going to see now, that its got that slow motion. All those frames are actually played out. That looks pretty good. Robert Carman: Yeah. Rich Harrington: Yeah, so, in this case, every individual frame is simply playing back in real time.
Meaning that 60 frames are now playing back at 24 frames a second. So it looks slower. Robert Carman: There's a couple little gotchas, or things to pay attention to in Final Cut Pro X, when you're doing this workflow. And the first is, you can actually tell Final Cut sort of a video quality that you want to process speed changes or conforms at, right? Rich Harrington: Yeah. Robert Carman: And the default is not very good. But there is an option called Optical Flow inside of Final Cut Pro X, that will give you the best quality possible for doing the conform of 60 60 frames per second footage, down to 23.98. Rich Harrington: Well, in this case here, you know, the normal quality is not bad, because we're not actually stretching any of the frames.
Robert Carman: Right. Rich Harrington: You might be able to get away with it but under video quality you do have different methods. Now I'm going to slow this down even more so you really see this. And let's take this down, just say. Robert Carman: 25%. Rich Harrington: Yeah. Yeah so even slower. Robert Carman: Okay. So not only have we conformed it we're slowing it down additionally, inside of Final Cut X. Rich Harrington: Yeah. And it still looks good. But, you know, good is not great. So if we go to that quality there, Video Quality. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: And I say Optical Flow, I've already analyzed this clip, so it's going to go very quickly.
Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: But normally you'll see a little analysis going here. Robert Carman: Yep. Rich Harrington: And now, look at that. Robert Carman: There you go. Now there is one more little thing here, is that on your computer here you've obviously set up your preferences to not have automatic background rendering. You'll notice that little sort of rusty color Brown bar over or on top of the clip. Rich Harrington: Yes. Robert Carman: So you know, if you wanted to, you know, get the full quality out of this, you'd either render it. So if you do want to render this, again, you could set up your preferences to do an auto-render. So anything that you do, Final Cut will automatically be rendering this in the background.
Rich Harrington: Right. Robert Carman: But in your case, since you didn't have auto-rendering turned on, all you need to do is simply go up to the modify window. It's kind of in a funny place. Rich Harrington: Yeah. Robert Carman: And then down to the bottom, and you have two options, render your entire timeline or render your selection. And you'll notice in the middle of the window, you get that little clock counting upwards and if you click on it, you can see your background tasks. And since you've already done that optical flow analysis, it's actually pretty quick. Rich Harrington: Yeah. Robert Carman: It'll be a little slower if you hadn't started to do the analysis, but there it is. It's done. That little brown bar there is gone. And we play that back. Now that looks pretty darn good. Rich Harrington: Yeah. And let's really push this. How about we go to 10% just to see.
Robert Carman: Okay. Sure I mean, I like trying new things. Rich Harrington: Yes. So, but I mean that looks great I think. Robert Carman: Yup. Rich Harrington: And I'll slow that down even more. We'll take it to 10% the original speed. And we'll go ahead under the Modify menu and render that. It's going through and processing. Now when you do a 10% speed, there's a lot of rendering there. Robert Carman: And this is another reason that I personally like the background rendering because I kind of am forgetful. And next thing you know I'm like why does this not look so good? And it's oh because I didn't render it. But I, I understand the reasons, there's reasons to have it on and reasons not to have it on.
Rich Harrington: On my laptop I leave it off because I don't want us to start to fill up my hard drive unnecessarily. Robert Carman: Of course. Rich Harrington: Alright it's just about done so we'll take a look at that. Here's one more time without. I'll play it before the rendering is complete. And we'll see it one more time at 10% speed. Notice when I play that back, the render is paused, but that's 10%. So really at this point, we're seeing a lot of slowdown, but that's pretty good, actually. Robert Carman: Yeah, it is. I mean, my personal feeling is that general 60 to 24 conform works great.
When you start adding even more slow speed changes on top of that, you, you know, sometimes, and we saw here, a little juttery. It still looks really good. You know, if you're doing a lot of work like this, where you want that ultra slow motion work. Rich Harrington: Phantom Robert Carman: Yeah. You know, there's, there's other options. Cameras like the, the Phantom cameras, which are super high speed cameras, shooting at, you know, hundreds upon thousands of frames per second, are really the only way to go to get that look to be perfect. But I think you can see, it's relatively easy with just a couple clips inside of Final Cut Pro X.
To bring a clip in, conform it to your timeline speed of 23.98 to get that nice, organic slow motion. And if you want, add on top a little extra of slow motion, and you can get some pretty compelling dynamic looks. Rich Harrington: Okay, so when we come back, we're going to take a look at Premiere Pro, and show you how to do it there. And then sort of the ultimate Adobe workflow is going to be AfterEffect. So stick around.
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