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To show values above and/or below points in a chart series, you can insert what are called vertical error bars. They can be based on percentages or fixed values or even standard deviation calculations. And these work in line charts. We are probably more likely to see them here, but they also work in column and bar charts, also in scatter charts and bubble charts, but no other types. So in the lower chart here--and I think you'll find that these tend to work better when you are working only with the single series, although you can use multiple series.
In this lower chart, let's insert some error bars, so the chart has been selected. Then in the Layout tab in the Ribbon, in the Analysis Group, choose Error Bars, and you'll see some options here. Error Bars with Standard Deviation. Now of course, we'd have to know something about standard deviation to know what this really means here, but the bars that we see, and they are the same all the way across, represent the standard deviation of this series. So the January point is outside the lower standard deviation, and the June entry is above the upper range of the standard deviation.
You see what's happening in the other entries as well. Now that may not be what you need, so we could go back to Error Bars and possibly choose None, or maybe choose a different option here. Error Bars with percentage displays error bars for the selected chart series with 5% value, and we see what's happening there. Now that's awfully tight, and you can barely see it. So possibly what we might want to do here is change that to a different percent. It all depends upon your needs. Let's go back to the Error Bars and choose More Error Bar Options.
This dialog box pops up, and we see, based on we just chose here, that the percentage is 5%. Let's click this button and maybe what we would like to see here are error bars that are 25%, 20%, whatever makes sense to you. Change that to 2 there, and just by clicking somewhere else, maybe up here, changing these, and go in the other direction, we immediately see what's happening. We could have also chosen Close here as well. So we might want to experiment with these numbers a little bit. So the entries that we are about to see--and they look little strange because they are currently selected-- we now have a vertical bar here with a top and bottom, and notice it says Cap or No Cap-- you can get rid of those if you wish. And do we want these to go in both directions or maybe just above? I am going to click Plus, and now they're just above the line--we see them here-- or Minus just below, or possibly both.
So at different times you have the need to show these. As I click Close here, we will see these Error Bars. And I have to click outside of it too. So in each case--and the reason it's lower here under January is is that we've got a 25% value above this entry and then below it. Now some people like to actually connect these lines here, and what you have to do in cases like that is write formulas, and these are already written. So in cell B10, for example, right here, this equal be 5 times .75, this represents the lower value.
So it represents the bottom of this line that we were seeing for January. So by writing the formulas here--and this is the one for the lower entry and here is for the upper entry. This is 25% above the 80. So that's going to be actually 100. See how that's matching up here. If we want to show these values here in this chart as well, that in effect will connect these points. We can simply copy these values. I'll press Ctrl+C here, and then on the chart, right-click and Paste, and they go right into the chart to match up with those.
I wouldn't call that a necessity, but sometimes you do want to do that as well. So after connecting these lines, you may want to try some other options here. Under the Error Bars capability, it's on the Layout tab, and we can explore some other options here or also go to More Error Bars Options. Inserting Error Bars in a series might be used to convey uncertainty or an amount associated with each point in the data series as you choose.
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