Video: Understanding nodesMore than design or structure, content is what brings people to your site. That content can be graphics, text, media files such as movies, or even just links to other sites. No matter what it is Drupal encapsulates all contents into units called nodes. We are going to look at a few node types and explain how Drupal handles them. A node can be defined as the basic unit of content in Drupal. For example, a story, a page such as we have on the front-page here on any other entry of a content type. All nodes require a Title such as this one here. They may require a Body although that's not always necessary and must have additional options such as a check box that lets you promote the node to your site's front page.
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Drupal is a free, open-source content management system (CMS) for a variety of platforms. It has a robust user community and easy-to-use administration features. Drupal Essential Training covers all the important aspects of installing, configuring, customizing, and maintaining a Drupal-powered website. Instructor Tom Geller explores blogs, discussion forums, member profiles, and other features while demonstrating the steps required to make Drupal perform. He also teaches fundamental concepts and skills along the way, including installation, backups, and updates; security and permissions; flexible page layouts and CSS; menu navigation; and performance monitoring and disaster recovery. He also discusses how to select and install the community-supported modules that further expand Drupal's capabilities, and gives experienced PHP programmers tips on customizing page templates. Example files accompany the course.
- Understanding the inner workings of Drupal
- Creating stories, pages, blogs, forums, and polls
- Managing users and comments
- Setting and customizing themes
- Exchanging content via RSS
- Stopping comment spam with a CAPTCHA
- Launching a site and joining the Drupal community
More than design or structure, content is what brings people to your site. That content can be graphics, text, media files such as movies, or even just links to other sites. No matter what it is Drupal encapsulates all contents into units called nodes. We are going to look at a few node types and explain how Drupal handles them. A node can be defined as the basic unit of content in Drupal. For example, a story, a page such as we have on the front-page here on any other entry of a content type. All nodes require a Title such as this one here. They may require a Body although that's not always necessary and must have additional options such as a check box that lets you promote the node to your site's front page.
Let's take a look some of the options in this node. We go to it by clicking on the Title and then clicking on Edit and we can go through and see there is our Title, our Body. Here are some options to make Menu settings. That's to create a menu choice that will go directly to the story. Going down further we can change the Input format. In this case we only have two options, but the addition of other modules would let you, for example, add PHP code and perhaps some other type of input format. Revision information, which will let you save a different version every time you make a change and so forth. Very important is down here in publishing options. If this Publish box is not checked then it won't show up on your site and it won't be public.
Now this particular node is a page, but there are other content types. We can see them by going to Administer and then to Content types. We have three that are enabled Page and Story came built in with Drupal as part of the default installation. Blog Entry we turned on at another point in this series. Let's see what it looks like from an ordinary user's point of view. We are going to switch to our ordinary user who is fishyjoe and who has been launched into this other browser Firefox. If fishyjoe or any other user wants to Create content they go down to this link Create Content. They then have a choice of several different types of content. This is a list of all of the content types from the previous screen in the Administration interface that also have permissions allowing this particular user to enter that content type.
So, for example, not every user will be allowed to enter a blog entry unless you specifically say that they can. In this case, let's have fishyjoe create a blog entry. If you are a premium subscriber to lynda.com or have received this course on a disk, you will find the Exercise file which has the text we are going to enter here. We are going to get that text now by going to the Finder, hiding everything else, and opening up our folder called Exercise Files. In there, you will find it in Chapter 9, video 1 called blog- post; double click on that and there we have it. I am going to copy this text and paste it into the Drupal interface.
Command+C or Ctrl+C on the PC, switch to other program, on the Mac by the way I am doing that by holding down the Command key and hitting Tab. Clicking the Correct field Command+V or Ctrl+V to paste it and then do it again for the Body. So this user has put in everything that they really need to for the blog entry. As we scroll down, we see we don't have the all of the options we did in the administrative interface, that's because certain options are only available to the administrator. We click on Save and we have created a node, but where exactly does that node show up? Let's go back to the Administrative interface and find out. I am doing that again by holding the command key and hitting tab. In the Administrative interface you can see a list of all of the nodes. No matter what their content type by going up to Administer and Content and there you have it and we even have a little note here that shows that it's new node that the administer hadn't seen before.
If we click on it, we see the node itself. As the administrator we can also edit the node and the superuser, that is User ID number one, the one you created when you first set up Drupal, can always edit all nodes. The Administrator, as I mentioned before, has additional options such as the input format, comment settings, authoring information, all of the things we discussed earlier. I am going to just click Save. So then I'll ask the question is every page on a Drupal site a node, not necessarily. Some types of pages that aren't are the user pages. If you go up to your site and then go to /user this shows me the admin user page and if you go back to the other person and say user this is Fishyjoe's user page.
These are not actually nodes they are built in to Drupal and are not handled the same as Stories and Pages and blog- posts. A second kind of page on Drupal that's not a node are those that are created through some process. For example, Drupal has a module called aggregator which will pull in news from other websites throughout the Internet and those news pieces are put into a page. That page does not have a node ID. That is to say it's not edited in the same way. Finally, pages that are created by Drupal itself or are installed by modules, those aren't nodes either, we will go back to our administrative interface and go to Administer this page that you see here is not a node, again, it's built directly into Drupal.
All nodes can be viewed as stand alone pages and we'll see that by going to Administer and Content and take another look at this, "Can you help me find a lender?" The post that fishyjoe just put up. You see up here the URL is localhost/node/3. All that, that means is it's a node and it has ID number 3. If you go into the database itself, you can actually see the IDs. We are going to do that now. We will go to MAMP or if you are on a Windows server, you will go to WAMP. Open start page, phpMyAdmin, select your Drupal database and then go down to the table called node. There is also one called node_revisions. The difference between the two is if you have turned on revisions, sometimes you have to look in both. We are going to click on this icon, which is the Browse icon in phpMyAdmin. Scroll down a little bit and we'll see a list of all our nodes in the Drupal site and there is our blog post.
If you as the administrator wanted to change it within the MySQL database, you could actually do that by doing it here or, of course, you can change it in Drupal's interface. I am just going to scroll to the bottom here and click on Go to make sure that we save anything that we might have changed and then go back to our administrative interface. As you develop your site you may add node types that didn't come with Drupal's default installation either explicitly or by downloading modules that create new node types. Some of these nodes will be very complex even having dozens of fields beyond Title and Body but your basic understanding of nodes, how they are stored, and how to control them will serve you well for all of your content types.
Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Drupal 6 Essential Training .
Here are the FAQs that matched your search "" :
- Q: While following along to the installation instructions in the “Installing WAMP and Drupal on Windows” chapter in the Drupal Essential Training title, an error occurs when attempting to open the local host page. Nothing appears except for an error reading “WAMPSERVER server offline.” What is causing this?
- A: There is a known problem with some versions of WAMP that include a version of PHP (5.3) that some versions of Drupal is not compatible with. See http://tomgeller.com/content/tips-running-drupal-windows-using-wamp#comment-831 for more information.
If that is not causing the issue, reference the tips at http://tomgeller.com/content/tips-running-drupal-windows-using-wamp.
If you don't see the solution at either of those links, try using another AMP stack, such as XAMPP or the Acquia stack installer. See http://tomgeller.com/content/what-hells-wrong-drupal-wamp for discussion about these.
- Q: After installing XAMPP and running Drupal for the first time, the Administration menu does not appear. What is the reason for this?
- A: There are several possible problems. Here are some likely solutions. (These may also solve problems encountered with other AMP stacks.)
- Increase XAMPP's PHP allocation.
- Check to make sure all XAMPP's paths are correct and that permissions are correct. If the database information appears, but not Drupal's supporting files, and an included theme is being used, the supporting files will be in the /modules folder.
- Another solution is to not use WAMP or XAMPP. One option is to use Acquia's Drupal Stack Installer ("DAMP"), which can be found at http://www.acquia.com/downloads. However, that installs Acquia Drupal, which is a version of "normal" Drupal extended with additional modules. If only core Drupal is desired, see the instructions at http://acquia.com/blog/kieran/try-drupal-7-alpha-your-laptop-or-desktop. (The instructions are for Drupal 7, but will work for Drupal 6 as well.)
- Q: In the "Using the example files" movie, the method of importing information to the database is shown, using the backup in Chapter 10. When attempting to do this, the following error is shown: "No data was received to import. Either no file name was submitted, or the file size exceeded the maximum size permitted by your PHP configuration. See FAQ 1.16." The system is running the latest versions of Apache, PhP and MySQL, on Windows Vista. What could be causing the problem?
- A: This is probably caused because your AMP stack allocates too little memory to PHP.
That's especially true if you're using WAMP, which only gives PHP 2MB of memory, when it really needs at least 16MB.You'll see the issue if you go to the MySQL-controlling phpMyAdmin screen (probably at http://localhost/phpMyAdmin) and click "Import": The maximum file size allowed is 2,048K. That's only 2MB, and the databases for most Drupal sites are much larger than that. (The example site for Drupal Essential Training gets as big as 5MB.) The video "Installing WAMP and Drupal on Windows" shows (at around 3:30) where the php.ini file is, but here are some more-complete instructions to increase that memory limit.
- Click the WAMP icon in your system tray.
- Select "PHP". In the side menu, select "php.ini" to open a file containing PHP's configuration options.
- Search for the line, "upload_max_filesize = 2M".
- Change it to "upload_max_filesize = 32M" (or whatever you like).
- Save the file and restart WAMP. (Better yet, restart your computer entirely to be sure. I'm frankly not sure whether it makes a difference.)
- Now go back to that "Import" screen in phpMyAdmin: You should notice that the limit has changed.
- Q: I don't remember the default username and password used demonstrate Drupal.
- A: The default username used in the course is "admin"; the default password is "booth".
- Q: How can I change Drupal's administrative username and password?
- A: If for some reason the default exercise file username (admin) and password (booth) don't work, you can change them in the database itself using phpMyAdmin. (This technique is demonstrated in a video from Chapter 8, "Recovering from disasters".)
- Open your Drupal database with phpMyAdmin.
- Go to the "users" table. Click the Browse icon.
- For the row where uid = 1, click the Edit icon. (Note the value under the "Name" column: That's the administrator's username.)
- In the "pass" row, select "MD5" under the "Function" column
- In the same row, enter your new password under the "Value" column.
- At the bottom of the screen, click the "Go" button. You should now be able to log in with that username and new password.
- Q: In Windows Vista, the WAMP icon disappears from the system tray after a certain amount of time. How do I get it to reappear?
- A: To make the WAMP icon reappear (so that you can access localhost, phpmyadmin, php.ini, etc.), you have to activate the "start WAMP server" icon (from start menu, desktop or wherever). The system tray icon will reappear.
- Q: My .htaccess file disappeared. What caused this?
- A: A few times during the Drupal Essential Training video series, the instructor says to copy a Drupal installation by selecting all the files in the folder and then "dragging and dropping" them, either to a server or another location on your local computer. This is not the best way to do so, as the hidden file ".htaccess" will not be copied.
There are two ways to get around that problem:
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- When installing Drupal for the first time: Instead of copying files from the Drupal folder, move the entire folder to its target location and rename it. This is the easiest solution for those without experience with Unix.
- Use the command-line interface to copy the .htaccess file.
- Q: In the video, the instructor says the current version of Drupal is 6.3, but on the drupal.org site, the latest version is 6.17. Which is the newer version of Drupal?
- A: Drupal 6.17 is newer than version 6.3. For some reason, the the version numbers go 6.3, 6.4... 6.9, 6.10... 6.17. It’s counter-intuitive, but that’s the order.
- Q: My WAMP phpMyadmin will not allow me to upload the exercise files. It returns this message: "No data was received to import. Either no file name was submitted, or the file size exceeded the maximum size permitted by your PHP configuration. See FAQ 1.16." There was no previous database to drop, so what do I need to do to make this work?
- A: This is a common problem, caused not by Drupal, but by WAMP. WAMP only allows you to upload files of 2MB or smaller, which is much too small. The solution is detailed at http://tomgeller.com/cant-import-a-drupal-site-in-windows.
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