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Depending on the available permissions and comfort level a manual installation may be the most appropriate. At the highest level, Drush manual installation is just unzipping the archive. However, there are couple steps involved in making it useful which I will demonstrate. First, download Drush using Wget. Wget in its simplest operation just takes URL which it will download to the current directory, type "wget" then URL of Drush 5.8, http/ftp.drupal.org/files/ projects/drush-7.x-5.8.zip.
Now that the archive has downloaded, extract it using the Unzip command, "unzip drush". Now that the contents have been extracted, I no longer need the archive, so I'll remove it to keep my home directory clean. The zip file contains a single directory named Drush, change directory to the Drush directory "cd drush". Next, I'm going to use the chmod command to grant myself execution permissions on the Drush executable, chmod u stands for user, plus (+) means to add, and x stands for execution followed by the name of the command, "drush".
Drush can now run, but if I was in any other directory then I would have to know the full path to be able to execute it, which is frankly a pain. Instead, I'm going to make the commands available no matter which directory I'm in. To do that, I first need to know exactly what directory I'm in right now, so I will use the pwd command which returns the working directory. I'm currently in users John Peck Drush; your directory will be different depending on the operating system and user. If you have administrative privileges, you can perform the following command to symbolically link Drush to the user bin directory which will make the command available throughout the entire system.
As the directory is protected, elevated privileges are required, so either use sudo or log in as root for the step, I'll be using "sudo" followed by "ln" for link "-s" for symbolic. Next, I'll provide the path to be linked to, which is the directory shown with the pwd command: /Users/johnpeck/ drush followed by slash (/), and then "drush", the command itself. Finally, Space then the path for the symbolic link, which I will put in user/bin/drush.
Change directory back to the home directory and test that the link worked "which drush". The result should show that the Drush command is available at user/bin/drush. If you do not have administrative privileges then there is another method that can be used. By editing the shell configuration file, I can manually specify the location of Drush. Depending on the system that is being installed the file may be slightly different. It's highly likely that you have one of the following files already installed: bash_profile which is what's available on Mac, bashrc which is the default on Ubuntu and Debian, and . profile which is another possibility.
To check for the files, use the list directory contents command ls and I'll look for a: ~/.bash_profile, it's not there; let's try ls ~/.bashrc, it's also not there; and then profile, also not there. If none of these files exist, you will need to create one. So start with .bashrc first, on a Linux system, and bashprofile on a Mac. I'm going to edit the file and I'm going to use the text editor, nano.
So, "nano Space -w", currently I'm on the Mac, so "~/.bash_profile", add the following line to the end of your file. I am going to use the directory shown with PWD command, this will be different for your system: export PATH="$PATH:/ Users/johnpeck/drush" exit and save by pressing Ctrl+X then Y to confirm.
Load the configuration file using the source Command, "source", I'm going to load bash profile, so you may need to load bashrc or profile depending on the system. The next time I log in, the configuration will be loaded, so this is a one-time thing: ~/.bash_profile. Verify the Drush is available by using the "which" command to locate Drush, "which drush". Drush has now been manually installed.
To upgrade Drush, you'll need to remove the Drush directory and repeat the extraction, and make the Drush command executable as previously demonstrated. In the next chapter, I will demonstrate how to install a site using Drush, how to get information about the site and the modules, how to manage modules, users and more.
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