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Drupal is a free, open-source content management system (CMS) for a variety of platforms. It has a robust user community and easy-to-use administration features. Drupal Essential Training covers all the important aspects of installing, configuring, customizing, and maintaining a Drupal-powered website. Instructor Tom Geller explores blogs, discussion forums, member profiles, and other features while demonstrating the steps required to make Drupal perform. He also teaches fundamental concepts and skills along the way, including installation, backups, and updates; security and permissions; flexible page layouts and CSS; menu navigation; and performance monitoring and disaster recovery. He also discusses how to select and install the community-supported modules that further expand Drupal's capabilities, and gives experienced PHP programmers tips on customizing page templates. Example files accompany the course.
If you want complete control over how your theme behaves and in particular how it handles custom created content types, you need to hack at the PHP that's contained within the sites page templates or use a module called Content Templates or Contemplate. We will show you both methods but we are not going to go deeply into how to actually code the changes, that could be an entire course in itself. Instead we will get you started by explaining the template systems logic, where to find the files and the basics of how to play with them. The first we are going to do is we are going to look at the files that make up the theme; we go to the folder where we first installed Drupal. For us we click on the Finder, go to Finder, Hide Others and that exposes the folder where we installed Drupal. Since we are using a theme that came with Drupal, we are going to find it in the themes folder. If you are using a theme that didn't come with Drupal you will probably find it inside the sites folder, either in the all or the default folders. Our theme is Bluemarine, so we open up themes and Bluemarine. We sort by Kind or Type and we see all of the templates together, they are the ones that end in .tpl.php. The one we are concerned with is page.tpl.php; before we do anything else I want to back this up. So I will highlight it, hit Command C or Control C on the Windows machine and then paste, which is Command V or Control V on a Windows machine; that creates a copy.
I am just going to label that, tpl.php- BACKUP. Now let's go in and play with this code by opening it up in the Text Editor. As you can see the page template is a mixture of PHP code and plain old HTML. We are going to change this so the left column in our site disappears entirely, that is if we go back to our site, we will see none of the stuff over here. Don't worry we will change it back by reverting to our backup; this is only an example of what you can do with your page template. Of course to do more complex things you will need to know PHP; if you are a lynda.com premium subscriber or you are watching this series on a disk you can open up the Exercises File 15_01. Here we have opened up that exercise file which explains what exactly we are changing.
Again don't worry if you don't understand this, I am just showing that you can change things not how to change them. So we are going to search for this text in here, php if left etcetera, etcetera. To find that I am going to search for that $left, so I do Command F or Control F in your PC and there it is, php if left etcetera, etcetera. Let's compare, to make sure it looks the same, yep very good and we will replace the entire bit between this and this. Now we go and take the text that we want to change it to, copy it with Command+C or Control+C if you are using a Windows machine and paste it in and save it. We will close that file and go back to our site, now we reload the page by clicking on reload; there it is we have removed that left column.
Let's change it back though because of course we don't want to leave it this way but you can see how much you can change a page with just a little bit of code. To change it back, we go back to our Finder, first we will get rid of that page.tpl.php file that we just changed; by dragging it to the Trash if you are using a Mac, or by Right-clicking and selecting Delete if you are using a PC. Then we will rename our backup, back to its original name and if we go back to our site and reload we see everything is back to normal. But what if we want to change the layout of a specific content type, that is, have the blog look different from the way it is now. Let's take a look at what the Blogs do look like, we have a title and we have this submitted information and then we have additional stuff down here.
Let's say we want to get rid of this additional submitted information. To do that we go back to the folder that contains those templates and again I go to the Finder and hide everything else on the Mac and we take the node file, node.tpl.php, copy it and paste it to make a backup, call that one BACKUP. Then we are going to copy it and paste it one more time, that second copy we will call node-blog.tpl.php and there we go. Drupal looks for a file that has this particular sort of name and it uses the machine-readable name for the content type. Let's go back and see how we can see those machine-readable names; in your administrative interface you would go to Administer, Content types and it's this, this blog, or book or forum.
So if you wanted to change the way that forum topics look we would change it to node-forum.tpl.php. Let's open that in the Text Editor, as you can see the Content types are actually quite simply defined, there is not a lot of code in here. As it happens, I know that the part that I want to comment out from doing some research is this right here, span class = "submitted" etcetera, etcetera, everything between the open span and closed span tags. I am going to use an HTML comment to do so and again if you don't know HTML don't worry about it too much because the point is not to learn how to do this but that you can do it and if you want to learn more about how HTML works, you can watch the Essential Training video from lynda.com. We will close out that comment tag and save it.
Now lets go back to our site, go to the Blog and you notice we no longer have that submitted information. We have effectively changed the way that, that Content type appears on the site. If we click on it, it still doesn't appear. I am going to return our blog to the way that it was by replacing it once again with just the simple node template. To do so we go back to our Finder and hide everything and then we just throw away this file we created, node-blog. We can also throw away our backup since we didn't end up using it. Now if we go back to our site and reload the page, there we have our submitted information again.
If you want to learn more about how you can affect Content types in this way, there is page on the drupal.org site, drupal.org/node/44699 and there you have it. But let's go back to our site; there is one other way you can make such changes without having to muck around in the PHP file, that's where the module called Contemplate or Content Templates. We have already downloaded it, so now we are going to turn it on by going to Administer and Modules. Contemplate works with CCK type, so you also have to have the CCK module installed. It's a little bit tricky to find on this page however because it's inside the CCK group and here it is as Content Templates, go to the bottom and Save configuration. Now we go to Administer and we have a new choice, Content Templates, if we go to a Blog Entry and Create Template. We will see that we have a lot of options of what we can do to change the Teaser, the Body and even the RSS feed if we are feeding this out to outside sites.
We are not going to go into all of the ways you can change it because it's quite complicated and in fact is its own programming language. But believe me it's much easier than programming the PHP by hand. But for right now we are just going to go back to our home page. As you can see these are all tools that should be used with a very light hand and I can't stress how important backups are. While preparing this video, I commented out one too many lines from a PHP file, literally just a few characters, and my entire site disappeared. If you can get done what you want with Contemplate, stick with that but for really profound changes don't be afraid to backup and reach straight into Drupal's template files.
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