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Drupal 6 Essential Training
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Changing page templates with PHP


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Drupal 6 Essential Training

with Tom Geller

Video: Changing page templates with PHP

If you want complete control over how your theme behaves and in particular how it handles custom created content types, you need to hack at the PHP that's contained within the sites page templates or use a module called Content Templates or Contemplate. We will show you both methods but we are not going to go deeply into how to actually code the changes, that could be an entire course in itself. Instead we will get you started by explaining the template systems logic, where to find the files and the basics of how to play with them. The first we are going to do is we are going to look at the files that make up the theme; we go to the folder where we first installed Drupal. For us we click on the Finder, go to Finder, Hide Others and that exposes the folder where we installed Drupal. Since we are using a theme that came with Drupal, we are going to find it in the themes folder. If you are using a theme that didn't come with Drupal you will probably find it inside the sites folder, either in the all or the default folders. Our theme is Bluemarine, so we open up themes and Bluemarine. We sort by Kind or Type and we see all of the templates together, they are the ones that end in .tpl.php. The one we are concerned with is page.tpl.php; before we do anything else I want to back this up. So I will highlight it, hit Command C or Control C on the Windows machine and then paste, which is Command V or Control V on a Windows machine; that creates a copy.
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  1. 4m 38s
    1. Welcome
      50s
    2. Using the example files
      3m 48s
  2. 28m 55s
    1. Drupal is a CMS
      7m 43s
    2. Choosing Drupal
      5m 32s
    3. Checking Drupal's requirements
      4m 26s
    4. Understanding the inner workings of Drupal
      4m 35s
    5. Meeting the Drupal community
      6m 39s
  3. 11m 28s
    1. Learning key terms in Drupal
      5m 20s
    2. Touring Drupal's interface
      6m 8s
  4. 34m 35s
    1. Installing WAMP and Drupal on Windows
      9m 41s
    2. Installing MAMP
      4m 34s
    3. Setting up the database on a Mac
      2m 2s
    4. Downloading and installing Drupal on a Mac
      6m 37s
    5. Troubleshooting installation problems
      3m 49s
    6. Automating updates with cron
      7m 52s
  5. 25m 37s
    1. Setting up clean URLs
      5m 52s
    2. Backing up your Drupal site
      3m 31s
    3. Restoring your Drupal site from backup
      4m 19s
    4. Wiping your Drupal installation clean
      2m 7s
    5. Updating Drupal
      9m 48s
  6. 15m 37s
    1. Using the Administration menu
      6m 21s
    2. Setting site information
      4m 50s
    3. Setting the theme
      4m 26s
  7. 35m 8s
    1. Understanding security and permissions
      7m 2s
    2. Controlling site access with user management
      3m 39s
    3. Creating users
      7m 58s
    4. Setting user profiles
      9m 40s
    5. Creating contact forms
      6m 49s
  8. 19m 19s
    1. Creating your site's basic info pages
      7m 13s
    2. Understanding page layout
      5m 40s
    3. Creating a flexible layout with blocks
      6m 26s
  9. 15m 35s
    1. Monitoring performance
      4m 52s
    2. Recovering from disasters
      7m 37s
    3. Improving administration skills
      3m 6s
  10. 41m 3s
    1. Understanding nodes
      6m 50s
    2. Creating basic content: Stories and pages
      7m 9s
    3. Enabling other content types
      9m 22s
    4. Adding blogs
      3m 49s
    5. Adding forums
      6m 56s
    6. Adding polls
      6m 57s
  11. 34m 50s
    1. Exploring content categories
      7m 45s
    2. Exchanging content via RSS
      9m 47s
    3. Using input filters
      7m 41s
    4. Managing comments
      9m 37s
  12. 38m 5s
    1. Configuring your theme
      11m 27s
    2. Changing your theme's graphics
      4m 59s
    3. Finding and installing a new theme
      8m 56s
    4. Understanding Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
      5m 56s
    5. Deciphering CSS files
      6m 47s
  13. 22m 41s
    1. Finding modules
      6m 53s
    2. Unpacking and installing modules
      6m 30s
    3. Configuring modules
      3m 50s
    4. Implementing complex modules
      5m 28s
  14. 32m 12s
    1. Ensuring automated updates with poormanscron
      3m 11s
    2. Defining custom content types with CCK
      12m 54s
    3. Stopping spam using a CAPTCHA
      10m 43s
    4. Using a WYSIWYG text editor
      5m 24s
  15. 22m 18s
    1. Getting around with multilevel menus
      7m 26s
    2. Building custom menus
      5m 42s
    3. Creating easy-to-navigate books
      9m 10s
  16. 20m 19s
    1. Changing page templates with PHP
      8m 15s
    2. Using PHP in content
      5m 20s
    3. Implementing PHP snippets
      6m 44s
  17. 10m 15s
    1. Launching your site
      5m 52s
    2. Joining the Drupal community
      4m 23s
  18. 14s
    1. Goodbye
      14s

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Drupal 6 Essential Training
6h 52m Beginner Aug 25, 2008

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Drupal is a free, open-source content management system (CMS) for a variety of platforms. It has a robust user community and easy-to-use administration features. Drupal Essential Training covers all the important aspects of installing, configuring, customizing, and maintaining a Drupal-powered website. Instructor Tom Geller explores blogs, discussion forums, member profiles, and other features while demonstrating the steps required to make Drupal perform. He also teaches fundamental concepts and skills along the way, including installation, backups, and updates; security and permissions; flexible page layouts and CSS; menu navigation; and performance monitoring and disaster recovery. He also discusses how to select and install the community-supported modules that further expand Drupal's capabilities, and gives experienced PHP programmers tips on customizing page templates. Example files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding the inner workings of Drupal
  • Creating stories, pages, blogs, forums, and polls
  • Managing users and comments
  • Setting and customizing themes
  • Exchanging content via RSS
  • Stopping comment spam with a CAPTCHA
  • Launching a site and joining the Drupal community
Subjects:
Web CMS
Software:
Drupal
Author:
Tom Geller

Changing page templates with PHP

If you want complete control over how your theme behaves and in particular how it handles custom created content types, you need to hack at the PHP that's contained within the sites page templates or use a module called Content Templates or Contemplate. We will show you both methods but we are not going to go deeply into how to actually code the changes, that could be an entire course in itself. Instead we will get you started by explaining the template systems logic, where to find the files and the basics of how to play with them. The first we are going to do is we are going to look at the files that make up the theme; we go to the folder where we first installed Drupal. For us we click on the Finder, go to Finder, Hide Others and that exposes the folder where we installed Drupal. Since we are using a theme that came with Drupal, we are going to find it in the themes folder. If you are using a theme that didn't come with Drupal you will probably find it inside the sites folder, either in the all or the default folders. Our theme is Bluemarine, so we open up themes and Bluemarine. We sort by Kind or Type and we see all of the templates together, they are the ones that end in .tpl.php. The one we are concerned with is page.tpl.php; before we do anything else I want to back this up. So I will highlight it, hit Command C or Control C on the Windows machine and then paste, which is Command V or Control V on a Windows machine; that creates a copy.

I am just going to label that, tpl.php- BACKUP. Now let's go in and play with this code by opening it up in the Text Editor. As you can see the page template is a mixture of PHP code and plain old HTML. We are going to change this so the left column in our site disappears entirely, that is if we go back to our site, we will see none of the stuff over here. Don't worry we will change it back by reverting to our backup; this is only an example of what you can do with your page template. Of course to do more complex things you will need to know PHP; if you are a lynda.com premium subscriber or you are watching this series on a disk you can open up the Exercises File 15_01. Here we have opened up that exercise file which explains what exactly we are changing.

Again don't worry if you don't understand this, I am just showing that you can change things not how to change them. So we are going to search for this text in here, php if left etcetera, etcetera. To find that I am going to search for that $left, so I do Command F or Control F in your PC and there it is, php if left etcetera, etcetera. Let's compare, to make sure it looks the same, yep very good and we will replace the entire bit between this and this. Now we go and take the text that we want to change it to, copy it with Command+C or Control+C if you are using a Windows machine and paste it in and save it. We will close that file and go back to our site, now we reload the page by clicking on reload; there it is we have removed that left column.

Let's change it back though because of course we don't want to leave it this way but you can see how much you can change a page with just a little bit of code. To change it back, we go back to our Finder, first we will get rid of that page.tpl.php file that we just changed; by dragging it to the Trash if you are using a Mac, or by Right-clicking and selecting Delete if you are using a PC. Then we will rename our backup, back to its original name and if we go back to our site and reload we see everything is back to normal. But what if we want to change the layout of a specific content type, that is, have the blog look different from the way it is now. Let's take a look at what the Blogs do look like, we have a title and we have this submitted information and then we have additional stuff down here.

Let's say we want to get rid of this additional submitted information. To do that we go back to the folder that contains those templates and again I go to the Finder and hide everything else on the Mac and we take the node file, node.tpl.php, copy it and paste it to make a backup, call that one BACKUP. Then we are going to copy it and paste it one more time, that second copy we will call node-blog.tpl.php and there we go. Drupal looks for a file that has this particular sort of name and it uses the machine-readable name for the content type. Let's go back and see how we can see those machine-readable names; in your administrative interface you would go to Administer, Content types and it's this, this blog, or book or forum.

So if you wanted to change the way that forum topics look we would change it to node-forum.tpl.php. Let's open that in the Text Editor, as you can see the Content types are actually quite simply defined, there is not a lot of code in here. As it happens, I know that the part that I want to comment out from doing some research is this right here, span class = "submitted" etcetera, etcetera, everything between the open span and closed span tags. I am going to use an HTML comment to do so and again if you don't know HTML don't worry about it too much because the point is not to learn how to do this but that you can do it and if you want to learn more about how HTML works, you can watch the Essential Training video from lynda.com. We will close out that comment tag and save it.

Now lets go back to our site, go to the Blog and you notice we no longer have that submitted information. We have effectively changed the way that, that Content type appears on the site. If we click on it, it still doesn't appear. I am going to return our blog to the way that it was by replacing it once again with just the simple node template. To do so we go back to our Finder and hide everything and then we just throw away this file we created, node-blog. We can also throw away our backup since we didn't end up using it. Now if we go back to our site and reload the page, there we have our submitted information again.

If you want to learn more about how you can affect Content types in this way, there is page on the drupal.org site, drupal.org/node/44699 and there you have it. But let's go back to our site; there is one other way you can make such changes without having to muck around in the PHP file, that's where the module called Contemplate or Content Templates. We have already downloaded it, so now we are going to turn it on by going to Administer and Modules. Contemplate works with CCK type, so you also have to have the CCK module installed. It's a little bit tricky to find on this page however because it's inside the CCK group and here it is as Content Templates, go to the bottom and Save configuration. Now we go to Administer and we have a new choice, Content Templates, if we go to a Blog Entry and Create Template. We will see that we have a lot of options of what we can do to change the Teaser, the Body and even the RSS feed if we are feeding this out to outside sites.

We are not going to go into all of the ways you can change it because it's quite complicated and in fact is its own programming language. But believe me it's much easier than programming the PHP by hand. But for right now we are just going to go back to our home page. As you can see these are all tools that should be used with a very light hand and I can't stress how important backups are. While preparing this video, I commented out one too many lines from a PHP file, literally just a few characters, and my entire site disappeared. If you can get done what you want with Contemplate, stick with that but for really profound changes don't be afraid to backup and reach straight into Drupal's template files.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Drupal 6 Essential Training.


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Q: While following along to the installation instructions in the “Installing WAMP and Drupal on Windows” chapter in the Drupal Essential Training title, an error occurs when attempting to open the local host page. Nothing appears except for an error reading “WAMPSERVER server offline.” What is causing this?
A: There is a known problem with some versions of WAMP that include a version of PHP (5.3) that some versions of Drupal is not compatible with. See http://tomgeller.com/content/tips-running-drupal-windows-using-wamp#comment-831 for more information.
If that is not causing the issue, reference the tips at http://tomgeller.com/content/tips-running-drupal-windows-using-wamp.
If you don't see the solution at either of those links, try using another AMP stack, such as XAMPP or the Acquia stack installer. See http://tomgeller.com/content/what-hells-wrong-drupal-wamp for discussion about these.
Q: After installing XAMPP and running Drupal for the first time, the Administration menu does not appear. What is the reason for this?
A: There are several possible problems. Here are some likely solutions. (These may also solve problems encountered with other AMP stacks.)
  1. Increase XAMPP's PHP allocation.
  2. Check to make sure all XAMPP's paths are correct and that permissions are correct. If the database information appears, but not Drupal's supporting files, and an included theme is being used, the supporting files will be in the /modules folder.
  3. Another solution is to not use WAMP or XAMPP. One option is to use Acquia's Drupal Stack Installer ("DAMP"), which can be found at http://www.acquia.com/downloads. However, that installs Acquia Drupal, which is a version of "normal" Drupal extended with additional modules. If  only core Drupal is desired, see the instructions at http://acquia.com/blog/kieran/try-drupal-7-alpha-your-laptop-or-desktop. (The instructions are for Drupal 7, but will work for Drupal 6 as well.)
Q: In the "Using the example files" movie, the method of importing information to the database is shown, using the backup in Chapter 10. When attempting to do this, the following error is shown: "No data was received to import. Either no file name was submitted, or the file size exceeded the maximum size permitted by your PHP configuration. See FAQ 1.16." The system is running the latest versions of Apache, PhP and MySQL, on Windows Vista. What could be causing the problem?
A: This is probably caused because your AMP stack allocates too little memory to PHP. 
 
That's especially true if you're using WAMP, which only gives PHP 2MB of memory, when it really needs at least 16MB. 
You'll see the issue if you go to the MySQL-controlling phpMyAdmin screen (probably at http://localhost/phpMyAdmin) and click "Import": The maximum file size allowed is 2,048K. That's only 2MB, and the databases for most Drupal sites are much larger than that. (The example site for Drupal Essential Training gets as big as 5MB.) The video "Installing WAMP and Drupal on Windows" shows (at around 3:30) where the php.ini file is, but here are some more-complete instructions to increase that memory limit. 

  1. Click the WAMP icon in your system tray.
  2. Select "PHP". In the side menu, select "php.ini" to open a file containing PHP's configuration options.
  3. Search for the line, "upload_max_filesize = 2M".
  4. Change it to "upload_max_filesize = 32M" (or whatever you like). 
  5. Save the file and restart WAMP. (Better yet, restart your computer entirely to be sure. I'm frankly not sure whether it makes a difference.)
  6. Now go back to that "Import" screen in phpMyAdmin: You should notice that the limit has changed.
Q: I don't remember the default username and password used demonstrate Drupal.
A: The default username used in the course is "admin"; the default password is "booth".
Q: How can I change Drupal's administrative username and password?
A: If for some reason the default exercise file username (admin) and password (booth) don't work, you can change them in the database itself using phpMyAdmin. (This technique is demonstrated in a video from Chapter 8, "Recovering from disasters".)

  1. Open your Drupal database with phpMyAdmin.
  2. Go to the "users" table. Click the Browse icon.
  3. For the row where uid = 1, click the Edit icon. (Note the value under the "Name" column: That's the administrator's username.)
  4. In the "pass" row, select "MD5" under the "Function" column
  5. In the same row, enter your new password under the "Value" column.
  6. At the bottom of the screen, click the "Go" button. You should now be able to log in with that username and new password.
Q: In Windows Vista, the WAMP icon disappears from the system tray after a certain amount of time. How do I get it to reappear?
A: To make the WAMP icon reappear (so that you can access localhost, phpmyadmin, php.ini, etc.), you have to activate the "start WAMP server" icon (from start menu, desktop or wherever). The system tray icon will reappear.
Q: My .htaccess file disappeared. What caused this?
A: A few times during the Drupal Essential Training video series, the instructor says to copy a Drupal installation by selecting all the files in the folder and then "dragging and dropping" them, either to a server or another location on your local computer. This is not the best way to do so, as the hidden file ".htaccess" will not be copied. 

There are two ways to get around that problem: 
  1. When installing Drupal for the first time: Instead of copying files from the Drupal folder, move the entire folder to its target location and rename it. This is the easiest solution for those without experience with Unix. 
  2. Use the command-line interface to copy the .htaccess file.
Sorry for the error.
Q: In the video, the instructor says the current version of Drupal is 6.3, but on the drupal.org site, the latest version is 6.17. Which is the newer version of Drupal?
A: Drupal 6.17 is newer than version 6.3. For some reason, the the version numbers go 6.3, 6.4... 6.9, 6.10... 6.17. It’s counter-intuitive, but that’s the order.
Q: My WAMP phpMyadmin will not allow me to upload the exercise files. It returns this message: "No data was received to import. Either no file name was submitted, or the file size exceeded the maximum size permitted by your PHP configuration. See FAQ 1.16." There was no previous database to drop, so what do I need to do to make this work?
A: This is a common problem, caused not by Drupal, but by WAMP. WAMP only allows you to upload files of 2MB or smaller, which is much too small. The solution is detailed at http://tomgeller.com/cant-import-a-drupal-site-in-windows.
 
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