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Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training
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Understanding floats


From:

Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training

with James Williamson

Video: Understanding floats

Most CSS-based layouts are float-based layouts. That is, the majority of the elements in the layout are floated to achieve element positioning. Although floated elements are removed from normal document flow, they still affect the elements that come after them. Something that comes in very handy when building layouts. The float property has two specific values, left and right. A floated elements shifts either to the left or to the right, until its outer edge reaches the edge of its containing block or another floated element.
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  1. 2m 57s
    1. Welcome
      1m 8s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 49s
  2. 7m 50s
    1. What is Dreamweaver?
      3m 16s
    2. Learning web design
      2m 22s
    3. Current web standards
      2m 12s
  3. 43m 9s
    1. The Welcome screen
      4m 5s
    2. Windows and Mac interface differences
      2m 23s
    3. The Application toolbar
      4m 7s
    4. The Document toolbar
      4m 40s
    5. Arranging panels
      8m 19s
    6. Managing workspaces
      7m 32s
    7. The Properties Inspector
      5m 54s
    8. The Insert panel
      6m 9s
  4. 25m 45s
    1. Basic site structure
      3m 11s
    2. File naming conventions
      1m 49s
    3. Defining a new site
      4m 35s
    4. Managing sites
      4m 51s
    5. Managing files and folders
      6m 36s
    6. Working with browsers
      4m 43s
  5. 27m 21s
    1. Creating new documents
      5m 16s
    2. New document preferences
      3m 6s
    3. Setting accessibility preferences
      4m 56s
    4. Working with starter pages
      3m 46s
    5. Managing starter pages
      10m 17s
  6. 30m 2s
    1. Basic tag structure
      2m 15s
    2. Adding structure to text
      8m 20s
    3. Creating lists
      9m 59s
    4. Getting text into Dreamweaver
      5m 59s
    5. Importing Word documents
      3m 29s
  7. 1h 17m
    1. Understanding style sheets
      2m 16s
    2. The anatomy of a CSS rule
      1m 48s
    3. Setting CSS preferences
      6m 36s
    4. The CSS Styles panel
      10m 2s
    5. Controlling CSS through the Properties Inspector
      5m 14s
    6. Using the Code Navigator
      7m 21s
    7. Using CSS Enable
      6m 45s
    8. Understanding element selectors
      8m 11s
    9. Understanding class selectors
      8m 49s
    10. Understanding ID selectors
      5m 59s
    11. Understanding descendant selectors
      6m 51s
    12. Attaching external style sheets
      7m 44s
  8. 1h 47m
    1. Working with units of measurement
      7m 11s
    2. Declaring font families
      9m 39s
    3. Controlling font sizing
      9m 9s
    4. Controlling weight and style
      8m 0s
    5. Controlling line height
      8m 29s
    6. Controlling vertical spacing with margins
      12m 3s
    7. Controlling spacing with padding
      5m 39s
    8. Aligning text
      8m 26s
    9. Transforming text
      5m 36s
    10. Writing global styles
      15m 42s
    11. Writing targeted styles
      17m 37s
  9. 1h 32m
    1. Understanding image types
      5m 3s
    2. Managing assets in Dreamweaver
      12m 51s
    3. Setting image accessibility preferences
      4m 20s
    4. Setting external image editing preferences
      3m 52s
    5. Placing images on the page
      7m 37s
    6. Photoshop integration
      5m 54s
    7. Modifying Smart Objects
      5m 51s
    8. Alternate Photoshop workflows
      8m 8s
    9. Modifying image properties
      11m 14s
    10. Styling images with CSS
      7m 11s
    11. Using background graphics
      9m 3s
    12. Positioning background graphics
      11m 6s
  10. 55m 16s
    1. Link basics
      3m 37s
    2. Setting site linking preferences
      2m 14s
    3. Creating links in Dreamweaver
      11m 1s
    4. Absolute links
      5m 8s
    5. Using named anchors
      11m 19s
    6. Linking to named anchors in external files
      2m 44s
    7. Creating an email link
      5m 24s
    8. Creating CSS-based rollovers
      13m 49s
  11. 1h 34m
    1. CSS structuring basics
      2m 56s
    2. The Box Model
      13m 21s
    3. Understanding floats
      6m 53s
    4. Clearing and containing floats
      8m 56s
    5. Using relative positioning
      4m 8s
    6. Using absolute positioning
      7m 18s
    7. Creating structure with div tags
      12m 7s
    8. Styling basic structure
      10m 34s
    9. Creating a two-column layout
      10m 37s
    10. Using Live View and CSS Inspect
      7m 51s
    11. Using Browser Lab
      9m 39s
  12. 56m 22s
    1. Reviewing table structure
      7m 41s
    2. Importing tabular data
      5m 13s
    3. Creating accessible tables
      9m 56s
    4. Using thead and tbody tags
      4m 0s
    5. Basic table styling
      8m 45s
    6. Styling table headers
      7m 52s
    7. Styling column groups
      4m 22s
    8. Creating custom table borders
      5m 1s
    9. Styling table captions
      3m 32s
  13. 1h 43m
    1. How forms work
      3m 0s
    2. Reviewing form design
      3m 2s
    3. Creating accessible forms
      7m 33s
    4. Setting form properties
      4m 6s
    5. The fieldset and legend tags
      4m 32s
    6. Inserting text fields
      5m 58s
    7. Inserting list menu items
      5m 26s
    8. Inserting checkboxes
      7m 50s
    9. Inserting radio button groups
      6m 22s
    10. Inserting text areas
      4m 12s
    11. Inserting submit buttons
      3m 37s
    12. Basic form styling
      12m 0s
    13. Form element styling
      8m 52s
    14. Styling form layout
      11m 49s
    15. Adding form interactivity
      2m 47s
    16. Using Spry validation widgets
      12m 49s
  14. 1h 23m
    1. Planning for templates
      10m 51s
    2. Creating a new template
      10m 37s
    3. Using editable attributes
      13m 43s
    4. Creating optional regions
      6m 23s
    5. Creating new pages from a template
      9m 17s
    6. Applying templates to existing pages
      6m 9s
    7. Working with nested templates
      7m 56s
    8. Working with repeating regions
      12m 58s
    9. Modifying templates
      5m 41s
  15. 40m 14s
    1. Behaviors overview
      3m 47s
    2. Hiding and showing elements
      9m 18s
    3. Spry overview
      4m 4s
    4. Using Spry widgets
      11m 36s
    5. Adding Spry effects
      3m 6s
    6. Using the Widget Browser
      8m 23s
  16. 28m 18s
    1. Inserting Flash files
      5m 4s
    2. Setting properties for Flash
      6m 27s
    3. Dreamweaver and Flash integration
      6m 6s
    4. Encoding Flash video
      6m 10s
    5. Adding Flash video
      4m 31s
  17. 45m 28s
    1. Running site-wide reports
      6m 33s
    2. Checking for broken links
      5m 41s
    3. Checking for browser compatibility
      8m 3s
    4. Adding remote servers
      8m 0s
    5. Uploading files
      7m 20s
    6. Managing remote sites
      9m 51s
  18. 34s
    1. Goodbye
      34s

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Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training
15h 22m Beginner Apr 30, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training, Adobe Certified Instructor James Williamson explores the tools and techniques of Dreamweaver CS5, Adobe's web design and development software. This course covers both the ins and outs of Dreamweaver, as well as recommended best practices for crafting new web sites and files, the fundamentals of HTML and CSS, and how to ensure clean and accessible code. The course also includes how to use tools in Dreamweaver to create and style web pages, manage multiple sites, and add user interactivity with widgets and scripting. Exercise files are included with the course.

Topics include:
  • Defining and structuring a new site
  • Creating new web documents from scratch or from templates
  • Adding and formatting text
  • Understanding style sheet basics
  • Placing and styling images
  • Creating links to internal pages and external web sites
  • Controlling page layout with CSS
  • Building and styling forms
  • Reusing web content with templates
  • Adding interactivity
  • Working with Flash and video
Subject:
Web
Software:
Dreamweaver
Author:
James Williamson

Understanding floats

Most CSS-based layouts are float-based layouts. That is, the majority of the elements in the layout are floated to achieve element positioning. Although floated elements are removed from normal document flow, they still affect the elements that come after them. Something that comes in very handy when building layouts. The float property has two specific values, left and right. A floated elements shifts either to the left or to the right, until its outer edge reaches the edge of its containing block or another floated element.

Elements that come after a floated element act as if it's no longer there and will move up to occupy the now empty space. In some cases this can lead to the floated element actually overlapping other items on the page. Line boxes such as individual lines of text will flow around a floated element. Even though the containing block that the lines are inside of actually flows under the floated element. This is best illustrated by imagining text wrapping around an image. Floats will continue to affect any element that comes after them until the float is cleared.

Now we'll discuss clearing later. For right now let's tackle some of the basics of floating. So here I have the floating.htm file open and this is found in the 10_03 folder. Let's take a quick look at the structure of our page. Inside of our page we have three div tags. One has an ID of box1, the other has an ID of box2, and the last one has an ID of box3. As you can see we already have some styles that are defining the width and the height of the boxes.

And we also have some margins placed on the bottom of them to hold boxes apart from each other. Well, let's go ahead and float our first element. So I am going to go up to my CSS Styles and highlight the selector #box1. That's our first div tag. Go ahead and add a property here and you want to add the float property. And we are just going to float that to the left. And if you grab the pull down menu you can see that you have left, right, none or inherit. So really those two values are what you are going to be choosing between, left and right. I want to go ahead and choose left.

And as soon as I do that something really, really odd happens to our layout. Box1 doesn't seem to move at all, in fact it's just where it was before. Box2 on the other hand seems to have gone missing. Well at least part of it has gone missing and box3 has moved up as well. So what happened here? Well what happened was, box1 was removed from normal document flow. Think of somebody just taking something off the page and picking it up so that it hovers over the page. Box2 and 3, no longer seeing a box above them, moved up to occupy that space.

So why are we still seeing the text for box2? Well we are seeing the text because the containing element went up underneath the parent. But the text itself would wrap around the floated element. And that's what we were talking about earlier when we were talking about what happened to those in-line boxes. Well let's change it to float right and see if it looks any different. So go back to the same selector, choose box1, float that to the right. And yeah that looks a little different. Now box2 and box3 are still moving up to occupy that space.

But because they are no longer touching or interacting with box1 at all, the in-line boxes move up as well and they're not trying to wrap around the element. Now let's make another more drastic change. I am going to take box1 and float it back to the left. Go ahead and highlight the selectors for box2 and box3 and for both of those add a float left property as well. Now what's happening is it looks like we have a single line of elements when in fact we know from the structure that we have three block level elements one after another.

What's happening is that remember that floated elements are going to go all the way over until they reach the edge of the containing element, or until they reach another floated element. So in this case there is plenty of room for box1, box2 and box3 to all fit on the same line. Now this is very similar to some techniques that we do in building menus for example. We will take the menu items and float them to left to form a horizontal menu bar. You could also think of these boxes as being larger, taller elements and we're very close to having a three-column layout.

So you see how flexible floats are when creating different types of layout elements on the page. Now let's change this a little bit more to reflect a layout that you guys might be a little bit more used to seeing. I am going to go up to box1 and I am going to take the float property and I am going to get rid of it. The easiest way to do this is to simply click on the float itself, make sure that's highlighted in blue and then click the trashcan icon in the CSS Styles panel. Now the reason that I cautioned you to make sure this was highlighted in blue is that if you don't, you could delete the whole rule.

And you don't want to do that. You want to make sure you're just deleting that property. Now what happens is box2 and box3 continue to float but box1 is left alone. Floats only affect the elements below them. So with box1 being part of normal document flow and box2 and box3 floating, box2 and box3 are affected by the floats. Box1 could care less. I am going to type box1 and change its width from 100 pixels to 600 pixels. Now I am going to highlight box2. I am going to leave its width at a 100 pixels but I'm also going to give it a margin to the right.

So I am going to add a property here and I am going to say margin-right 25 pixels. Notice how that's pushing one floated element away from the other one. So instead of going all the way to the edge of the floated element, it hits the margin first and it creates sort of a gutter between those two elements. I am going to change its height to 600 pixels. Finally, I am going to go to box3. And here we are going to change its height to 600 pixels as well. And I am going to change its width to 475 pixels. So now this should seem fairly familiar to you.

This is a very basic CSS-based layout. We have a single area up top that would typically be used as a header. Then we have a left column and a right column. The left column could be a sidebar or navigation; the right column would be the majority of your content. This is a very common layout technique. And although there are certainly variations on it, this is very widely used in web sites all across the web. So in this movie, we've discussed the very basics of floating. However this is by no means all you need to know in order to control floats.

In any float-based layout you'll find yourself quite often needing to restore the normal document flow. And that's where clearing comes in. In our next movie we will move a step closer to building simple page layouts by discussing clearing, and how it is often used in the context of page layouts.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training.


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Q: After creating a website following the instructions in the course, the header background graphic appears correctly in all browsers except Internet Explorer 6 and Internet Explorer 7.  The graphic works properly in IE 8. What can be done to make the graphics appear in IE 6 and IE 7?
A: To make the header background graphic appear, wrap the header div tag in another div tag and give it an ID like “mainHeader.” The problem stems from a bug in Internet Explorer that prevents the browser from dealing with absolutely positioned elements that are right next to relatively positioned elements.  Following the steps above should solve the problem.
Q: In the tutorial, the author links the Tool Tip to the word "More" at the bottom of the thumbnail photo field. I can't figure out how to place the <a> "More" on the thumbnail photo field.
A: In the example, there is a paragraph that wraps an <img> tag and the word "More," which is surrounded by an anchor tag (<a>). The author uses CSS to make sure the parent div tag of the thumbs floats to the left, and is only wide enough for the image. This causes the link text to break down onto another line. Then, the instructor uses CSS to align the link text to the right of the <img>. The link itself is a void JavaScript function, ( javascript();). This gives you a "dummy" link without returning you to the top of the page as the "#" dummy link tends to do.
If you were manually typing the text in, you could select the image, hit the right arrow button, and begin typing. The text should then appear on screen.
Q: In this movie, you are making changes to the HTML in order to customize the text layout on your page (i.e. h1, h2, and h3 tags as well as strong and em tags). I'm wondering why you are not using CSS to do this (i.e. font-size, font-weight). Do you typically use one method, or is it customary to do use both in a layout, and if so, what guidelines would you suggest to determine which to use when?
A: We modify the page's structure through the use of h1, h2, and other heading tags. So when we are choosing heading levels, we're not concerning ourselves with typography; we're establishing page structure. A heading is chosen to denote the level of importance for the heading, not typography.
CSS should always be used for presentation, not HTML.
Q: In the “Understanding ID selectors” movie, the author states that only one ID tag can be used per page, but then he adds two ID tags. Can you please clarify this for me?
A: You can use as many IDs per page as you wish. They just must all use a unique name. Therefore if you assign an element the ID of "header" no other element on THAT page may use the same ID.
Q: I noticed that in this course, the instructor uses this code on his CSS external sheet: @charset "UTF-8"; I was under the impression that this code wasn't necessary. The W3.org site is unclear on the matter. Is it necessary? Is it a best practice? Is it an older form of CSS?
A: The characterset attribute is added automatically by Dreamweaver, and there’s no practical reason to remove it. While it's not needed (the HTML page should indicate which encoding to use for the page) it is helpful if the CSS file is ever imported or used on a page where the characterset isn't specified. Think of it as a safety net for characterset encoding. Not necessary, but not harmful either.
Q: I need to add captions below images that I insert in pages of text. I played all the lessons in Chapter 5 (Adding Text and Structure) but none dealt with captions. I hope the author has an answer or can refer me to a source.
A: In HTML 4 and XHTML 1 (which is what Dreamweaver CS5 uses by default), there wasn't really a way to add captions below your photos. Most web authors would "fake" captions by having paragraphs of text below their images and using CSS to position and style the captions in the desired manner. Many would use a class such as .imgCaption to control the styling. To do this you would essentially position the text underneath the image through CSS (often by grouping the image and the paragraph in a div tag) and italicizing the text.

However in HTML5, there are new elements that allow us to associate images and their captions, the figure and figcaption element. Our author James Williamson just finished a course on HTML5: Syntax, Structure, and Semantics which details how to use it.

HTML5 Doctor also has a nice article on the figure and figcaption elements at http://html5doctor.com/the-figure-figcaption-elements/.
 
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