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Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training

Controlling vertical spacing with margins


Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training

with James Williamson

Video: Controlling vertical spacing with margins

When controlling typography in layout, one of the biggest challenges is in dealing with vertical spacing. Block level elements like paragraphs, headings, and lists are spaced vertically by using margins. On the surface, that sounds pretty straightforward and simple, however, there are two things that typically trip people up when attempting to control spacing through margins. First, vertical margins collapse. If you set a bottom margin on an element and a top margin on the element below it, instead of getting space equal to the two margins, you get spacing equal to the highest value.
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  1. 2m 57s
    1. Welcome
      1m 8s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 49s
  2. 7m 50s
    1. What is Dreamweaver?
      3m 16s
    2. Learning web design
      2m 22s
    3. Current web standards
      2m 12s
  3. 43m 9s
    1. The Welcome screen
      4m 5s
    2. Windows and Mac interface differences
      2m 23s
    3. The Application toolbar
      4m 7s
    4. The Document toolbar
      4m 40s
    5. Arranging panels
      8m 19s
    6. Managing workspaces
      7m 32s
    7. The Properties Inspector
      5m 54s
    8. The Insert panel
      6m 9s
  4. 25m 45s
    1. Basic site structure
      3m 11s
    2. File naming conventions
      1m 49s
    3. Defining a new site
      4m 35s
    4. Managing sites
      4m 51s
    5. Managing files and folders
      6m 36s
    6. Working with browsers
      4m 43s
  5. 27m 21s
    1. Creating new documents
      5m 16s
    2. New document preferences
      3m 6s
    3. Setting accessibility preferences
      4m 56s
    4. Working with starter pages
      3m 46s
    5. Managing starter pages
      10m 17s
  6. 30m 2s
    1. Basic tag structure
      2m 15s
    2. Adding structure to text
      8m 20s
    3. Creating lists
      9m 59s
    4. Getting text into Dreamweaver
      5m 59s
    5. Importing Word documents
      3m 29s
  7. 1h 17m
    1. Understanding style sheets
      2m 16s
    2. The anatomy of a CSS rule
      1m 48s
    3. Setting CSS preferences
      6m 36s
    4. The CSS Styles panel
      10m 2s
    5. Controlling CSS through the Properties Inspector
      5m 14s
    6. Using the Code Navigator
      7m 21s
    7. Using CSS Enable
      6m 45s
    8. Understanding element selectors
      8m 11s
    9. Understanding class selectors
      8m 49s
    10. Understanding ID selectors
      5m 59s
    11. Understanding descendant selectors
      6m 51s
    12. Attaching external style sheets
      7m 44s
  8. 1h 47m
    1. Working with units of measurement
      7m 11s
    2. Declaring font families
      9m 39s
    3. Controlling font sizing
      9m 9s
    4. Controlling weight and style
      8m 0s
    5. Controlling line height
      8m 29s
    6. Controlling vertical spacing with margins
      12m 3s
    7. Controlling spacing with padding
      5m 39s
    8. Aligning text
      8m 26s
    9. Transforming text
      5m 36s
    10. Writing global styles
      15m 42s
    11. Writing targeted styles
      17m 37s
  9. 1h 32m
    1. Understanding image types
      5m 3s
    2. Managing assets in Dreamweaver
      12m 51s
    3. Setting image accessibility preferences
      4m 20s
    4. Setting external image editing preferences
      3m 52s
    5. Placing images on the page
      7m 37s
    6. Photoshop integration
      5m 54s
    7. Modifying Smart Objects
      5m 51s
    8. Alternate Photoshop workflows
      8m 8s
    9. Modifying image properties
      11m 14s
    10. Styling images with CSS
      7m 11s
    11. Using background graphics
      9m 3s
    12. Positioning background graphics
      11m 6s
  10. 55m 16s
    1. Link basics
      3m 37s
    2. Setting site linking preferences
      2m 14s
    3. Creating links in Dreamweaver
      11m 1s
    4. Absolute links
      5m 8s
    5. Using named anchors
      11m 19s
    6. Linking to named anchors in external files
      2m 44s
    7. Creating an email link
      5m 24s
    8. Creating CSS-based rollovers
      13m 49s
  11. 1h 34m
    1. CSS structuring basics
      2m 56s
    2. The Box Model
      13m 21s
    3. Understanding floats
      6m 53s
    4. Clearing and containing floats
      8m 56s
    5. Using relative positioning
      4m 8s
    6. Using absolute positioning
      7m 18s
    7. Creating structure with div tags
      12m 7s
    8. Styling basic structure
      10m 34s
    9. Creating a two-column layout
      10m 37s
    10. Using Live View and CSS Inspect
      7m 51s
    11. Using Browser Lab
      9m 39s
  12. 56m 22s
    1. Reviewing table structure
      7m 41s
    2. Importing tabular data
      5m 13s
    3. Creating accessible tables
      9m 56s
    4. Using thead and tbody tags
      4m 0s
    5. Basic table styling
      8m 45s
    6. Styling table headers
      7m 52s
    7. Styling column groups
      4m 22s
    8. Creating custom table borders
      5m 1s
    9. Styling table captions
      3m 32s
  13. 1h 43m
    1. How forms work
      3m 0s
    2. Reviewing form design
      3m 2s
    3. Creating accessible forms
      7m 33s
    4. Setting form properties
      4m 6s
    5. The fieldset and legend tags
      4m 32s
    6. Inserting text fields
      5m 58s
    7. Inserting list menu items
      5m 26s
    8. Inserting checkboxes
      7m 50s
    9. Inserting radio button groups
      6m 22s
    10. Inserting text areas
      4m 12s
    11. Inserting submit buttons
      3m 37s
    12. Basic form styling
      12m 0s
    13. Form element styling
      8m 52s
    14. Styling form layout
      11m 49s
    15. Adding form interactivity
      2m 47s
    16. Using Spry validation widgets
      12m 49s
  14. 1h 23m
    1. Planning for templates
      10m 51s
    2. Creating a new template
      10m 37s
    3. Using editable attributes
      13m 43s
    4. Creating optional regions
      6m 23s
    5. Creating new pages from a template
      9m 17s
    6. Applying templates to existing pages
      6m 9s
    7. Working with nested templates
      7m 56s
    8. Working with repeating regions
      12m 58s
    9. Modifying templates
      5m 41s
  15. 40m 14s
    1. Behaviors overview
      3m 47s
    2. Hiding and showing elements
      9m 18s
    3. Spry overview
      4m 4s
    4. Using Spry widgets
      11m 36s
    5. Adding Spry effects
      3m 6s
    6. Using the Widget Browser
      8m 23s
  16. 28m 18s
    1. Inserting Flash files
      5m 4s
    2. Setting properties for Flash
      6m 27s
    3. Dreamweaver and Flash integration
      6m 6s
    4. Encoding Flash video
      6m 10s
    5. Adding Flash video
      4m 31s
  17. 45m 28s
    1. Running site-wide reports
      6m 33s
    2. Checking for broken links
      5m 41s
    3. Checking for browser compatibility
      8m 3s
    4. Adding remote servers
      8m 0s
    5. Uploading files
      7m 20s
    6. Managing remote sites
      9m 51s
  18. 34s
    1. Goodbye

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Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training
15h 22m Beginner Apr 30, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training, Adobe Certified Instructor James Williamson explores the tools and techniques of Dreamweaver CS5, Adobe's web design and development software. This course covers both the ins and outs of Dreamweaver, as well as recommended best practices for crafting new web sites and files, the fundamentals of HTML and CSS, and how to ensure clean and accessible code. The course also includes how to use tools in Dreamweaver to create and style web pages, manage multiple sites, and add user interactivity with widgets and scripting. Exercise files are included with the course.

Topics include:
  • Defining and structuring a new site
  • Creating new web documents from scratch or from templates
  • Adding and formatting text
  • Understanding style sheet basics
  • Placing and styling images
  • Creating links to internal pages and external web sites
  • Controlling page layout with CSS
  • Building and styling forms
  • Reusing web content with templates
  • Adding interactivity
  • Working with Flash and video
James Williamson

Controlling vertical spacing with margins

When controlling typography in layout, one of the biggest challenges is in dealing with vertical spacing. Block level elements like paragraphs, headings, and lists are spaced vertically by using margins. On the surface, that sounds pretty straightforward and simple, however, there are two things that typically trip people up when attempting to control spacing through margins. First, vertical margins collapse. If you set a bottom margin on an element and a top margin on the element below it, instead of getting space equal to the two margins, you get spacing equal to the highest value.

At first, this seems pretty counterintuitive until you realize that without margin-collapse, all paragraphs, headings, and other elements would be double spaced. Now the other small little detail is that every browser has its own default style sheet with its own preset values for vertical margins between elements. Without compensating for, or even eliminating, these default values, your spacing can be hard to predict and inconsistent. We will control our vertical margins by first reviewing how we eliminate any default margins that browsers might have, and then by setting margins that take into account vertical margin collapse.

So here I have the very longly named tour_detail_bigsur_trails.htm. One of the toughest things to do is sort of get rid of the default margins and padding that come inherent within a browser. There are a lot of different opinions about doing this. And if you want to read more about this, go out to Google and do a search for CSS Reset. That's what this technique is typically referred to. There are any number of blogs, pages out there, where people are talking about the pros and cons of CSS Resets.

Some people do these really detailed ones, some people don't do them at all, and some people do sort of a small flavor of one. Essentially, what they're designed to do is this: They're designed to allow you to have control over the vertical spacing of your element, because if you leave the browser's default margins in there, chances are that margin might overwrite yours or might be larger than the one that you called for, and you don't achieve your desired spacing. But the downside of this is if you zero out all the default margins for a browser, that means that you have to manually put them back in for every single element.

And sometimes you could forget to do that, and you end up with really weird-looking spacing. So what we're doing in our file is what I like to call a limited CSS Reset. That means that only a few of the elements that we're going to be using throughout our site are reset, and that they're really just the ones that we're going to use over and over and over again. Now, let's take a look at our reset. I'm going to go right over here to our tour_detail_bigsur_trials.htm document, and I'm going to click on the main.css link. That's going to take me to my main style sheet and notice that it opened up in Split View.

I'm going to scroll down, and at about line number 48, we can see our limited CSS reset. We're doing all of our headings, our paragraphs and address tag, blockquote - those are both common and block level elements - div tag, the unordered list, and list item. Notice that we didn't do unordered list, maybe we're not using a lot of those. The key here is that we're only doing select elements. It's a much shorter list. We don't have to remember to do it for every single element.

We just have to remember to do it for all of our headings, our paragraphs, if we're using addresses or blockquotes, any div tag that we want - which by the way that's kind of a just-to-be safe, because most div tags don't have a default margin in browsers - and then unordered list and list items. Since those now have zero padding and zero margins, we're going to have to explicitly set those in our styles. I'm going to switch back over to Design view, and we can see the result of that CSS Reset. You can these headlines: Backpack Cal, Big Sur Retreat, Hiking Trail Information.

All those guys are right on top of each other. Now, these paragraphs have some spacing, but that is due to Line-height, not vertical margins. And you might also say, "Well, wait a second. I see some vertical spacing between this paragraph and this heading." Well, that's true, but that's being caused by this graphic. It has a float applied to it, which moves it to the right, and then this heading has a clear property applied to it, which says, "No I have to go below you." So that's why we are seeing the spacing there. You can see our lack of spacing returns again, between this heading and this paragraph, that paragraph and that list, and all of those list items.

So those are elements that if we want to control their spacing, we need to put those vertical margin values in there manually, and that is our next task. Now, what we're going to do first is target our main article heading right there, Backpack Cal. Now you can do this in the CSS Styles panel, you can hand-code it, whatever you'd like to do. I'm going to scroll through here until I find #mainContent #mainArticle h1. Now, I'm going to collapse my Files panel by double-clicking the tab there. It's going to give me a little bit more room here and here, and it's going to make it easier for us to find these selectors.

So I highlight the #mainContent # mainArticle h1, and I'm going to add a property to this. I want to add a margin-bottom. So we can target just the margin on the bottom of our elements by saying margin-bottom. You could also grab the pulldown menu, and you could see you have values for overall margin, margin-bottom, margin-left, margin-right and margin-top as well. All right. So for the margin-bottom here, we want to set a value of .4ems. We'll hit Return.

We can see that now we get some additional vertical spacing between Backpack Cal and Big Sur Retreat. So we've adequately spaced that out for what we're looking for. Now remember, 1em would be 100% of the size of that heading. .4 means not quite as far down as the size of the heading. Okay. Let's keep going. I am going to go down to the next selector, which is #mainContent #mainArticle h2. That's going to target our headings 2s. We're going to add a property here. Here, we want to add the margin-top.

So margin-top of 1.2ems, and I want to add the margin-bottom of 1em. Okay, so what in the world was I just doing there? Well, the 1.2em basically says, "I want more space above me than below me." And that's going to give a nice visual separation to let folks know that you are starting a section or a new subheading. So we increase the space that we see here. Now, that's not cumulative. We didn't do 1.2+.4ems.

In actuality, we're only getting 1.2ems there because of that\ collapsing vertical margin. Now remember, Hiking Trail Information is still inside that heading 2. That's all one heading 2. We're using a Span tag to move that down to the line below it. So the 1em bottom margin is occurring between this paragraph and between that heading. Now speaking of this, this little span right here, it can have its own margin if you'd like. We need a little bit of space between this text and the Span tag.

So I'm going to go right down to the next selector, which is #mainContent #mainArticle h2 span.tourCost. I know that seems really long, but it's just descriptive of where that is. Now, here I'm going to add a property to this, and I'm going to add a margin-top. So I want to give it a little bit of spacing between the Big Sur Retreat text and the Hiking Trail Information. So margin-top is going to let me to do that. And I'm just going to do a margin-top of .25ems, so a quarter of the available font size.

You can see that it gives us a little bit of spacing but still keeps them together as a unit. Let's keep going. Let's go down to #mainContent # mainArticle h3, and here I'm going to add a property to that. I'm going to add margin p - now, here is something interesting. I want to do some short-hand notations so you guys can see that. If you need more than just top or bottom, right, left, that sort of thing, it's a little bit tiring to always have to go margin-top and then margin-bottom. Well, you can do shorthand notation. So instead of saying margin-top, margin -bottom, margin-right, margin-left, you can just say margin, and then you can pass along any values that you want.

Let me show what I mean. So I'm going to type in margin, hit Tab to go over to the value section of that, and then I'm going to type in 1.25em, then a space, and the space is very important, then a zero, then another space and then do .5em and hit Return. Now, what does that mean? Let's talk about this for a moment. In the margin value, you can pass one value, two values, in our case three values, or four values. Let's talk about what those would do for you. If you pass a single value, that's a margin all the around the element.

So you're looking at top, right, bottom and left being all the same value. If you have two values, the first two values represent the top and the bottom. The second of the two values represents the right and the left. Well, what if you do three values, like we've done here? The first value 1.25em is the top margin. The middle value here represents the right and the left. And finally, the .5ems is the bottom margin. Well, what if you have four all the way around? Well, just imagine a clock.

You do top-margin first, then right, then bottom, and then left. Some people remember that with the mnemonic TRBL, top, right, bottom, left. But I just remember the hands of a clock. So it works for me. So essentially, what we've done, and I'm going to scroll down and find where heading 3 is. There we go. Notice that we have more space above the heading 3 than below it. And again, that gives us a nice separation between the section above it and then the section below it. Now finally, for our main body text, let's choose our paragraph, so #mainArticle p. I'm going to add a property to that as well.

Margin-bottom of 1em and that's going to control the spacing below the paragraph. Now you might have noticed that while it affects the spacing between the paragraph and the list, it didn't affect the spacing between the paragraph and the heading. Again, the reason for that is margin-collapse. This value of the heading top is actually higher than the value of the margin-bottom for the paragraph. Because of that, the higher value wins. They don't add up. It's not cumulative, and we're left with the same spacing we had before.

That's a really neat technique, because you can assure that paragraphs have a default spacing below them. But then any subheading that comes along, you could add a little bit extra margin above it, and give yourself that separation within your text. Okay we're almost done. The last thing we have to do are these list items. Those guys are all jammed together. So we're going to give those a little bit of extra spacing as well. So I'm going to scroll down until I find #mainContent #mainArticle li. Once I find that, I'm going to go ahead and add another property here, and the property that I'm going to add here is margin.

Once again, we're just going to do margins all the way round. So remember that four values I talked about? The top value is going to be zero, and then do a space, right value is going to be zero and then add a space. So no top margin, no right margin. But for bottom margin, we're going to do 1.2ems and then another space. And for left margin, what this is going to do is its just going to indent our entire list for us, so that's it's a little bit more like a list. We're going to 2.4ems. And when I hit Return, there's our list. We're getting 1.2ems worth of space between them.

And then right here, we're getting 2.4ems of space, which is sort of pushing that list over and indenting that. Sweet! So now our typography looks a little better. If I switch over to Live View, I can see a more fully rendered version of that. We have some spacing that's making that a little bit easier to read. Now, making sure the elements are spaced property is fairly easy to achieve by using vertical margins. Just make sure you account for both browser default margin values, which we did earlier on by zeroing those guys out, and margin collapse when planning your styles.

If you do that, you should be able to achieve consistent element spacing throughout your site.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Dreamweaver CS5 Essential Training.

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Q: After creating a website following the instructions in the course, the header background graphic appears correctly in all browsers except Internet Explorer 6 and Internet Explorer 7.  The graphic works properly in IE 8. What can be done to make the graphics appear in IE 6 and IE 7?
A: To make the header background graphic appear, wrap the header div tag in another div tag and give it an ID like “mainHeader.” The problem stems from a bug in Internet Explorer that prevents the browser from dealing with absolutely positioned elements that are right next to relatively positioned elements.  Following the steps above should solve the problem.
Q: In the tutorial, the author links the Tool Tip to the word "More" at the bottom of the thumbnail photo field. I can't figure out how to place the <a> "More" on the thumbnail photo field.
A: In the example, there is a paragraph that wraps an <img> tag and the word "More," which is surrounded by an anchor tag (<a>). The author uses CSS to make sure the parent div tag of the thumbs floats to the left, and is only wide enough for the image. This causes the link text to break down onto another line. Then, the instructor uses CSS to align the link text to the right of the <img>. The link itself is a void JavaScript function, ( javascript();). This gives you a "dummy" link without returning you to the top of the page as the "#" dummy link tends to do.
If you were manually typing the text in, you could select the image, hit the right arrow button, and begin typing. The text should then appear on screen.
Q: In this movie, you are making changes to the HTML in order to customize the text layout on your page (i.e. h1, h2, and h3 tags as well as strong and em tags). I'm wondering why you are not using CSS to do this (i.e. font-size, font-weight). Do you typically use one method, or is it customary to do use both in a layout, and if so, what guidelines would you suggest to determine which to use when?
A: We modify the page's structure through the use of h1, h2, and other heading tags. So when we are choosing heading levels, we're not concerning ourselves with typography; we're establishing page structure. A heading is chosen to denote the level of importance for the heading, not typography.
CSS should always be used for presentation, not HTML.
Q: In the “Understanding ID selectors” movie, the author states that only one ID tag can be used per page, but then he adds two ID tags. Can you please clarify this for me?
A: You can use as many IDs per page as you wish. They just must all use a unique name. Therefore if you assign an element the ID of "header" no other element on THAT page may use the same ID.
Q: I noticed that in this course, the instructor uses this code on his CSS external sheet: @charset "UTF-8"; I was under the impression that this code wasn't necessary. The site is unclear on the matter. Is it necessary? Is it a best practice? Is it an older form of CSS?
A: The characterset attribute is added automatically by Dreamweaver, and there’s no practical reason to remove it. While it's not needed (the HTML page should indicate which encoding to use for the page) it is helpful if the CSS file is ever imported or used on a page where the characterset isn't specified. Think of it as a safety net for characterset encoding. Not necessary, but not harmful either.
Q: I need to add captions below images that I insert in pages of text. I played all the lessons in Chapter 5 (Adding Text and Structure) but none dealt with captions. I hope the author has an answer or can refer me to a source.
A: In HTML 4 and XHTML 1 (which is what Dreamweaver CS5 uses by default), there wasn't really a way to add captions below your photos. Most web authors would "fake" captions by having paragraphs of text below their images and using CSS to position and style the captions in the desired manner. Many would use a class such as .imgCaption to control the styling. To do this you would essentially position the text underneath the image through CSS (often by grouping the image and the paragraph in a div tag) and italicizing the text.

However in HTML5, there are new elements that allow us to associate images and their captions, the figure and figcaption element. Our author James Williamson just finished a course on HTML5: Syntax, Structure, and Semantics which details how to use it.

HTML5 Doctor also has a nice article on the figure and figcaption elements at
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