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Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals
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What is programming?


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Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals

with Simon Allardice

Video: What is programming?

So what exactly is programming? Well, you may have heard a phrase like this before. A computer program is a set of instructions. Here is the problem. This sounds like one of those phrases that might be technically true and is kind of useless, like the human brain is 80% water. Because you hear this phrase but then you see a complex program like Photoshop or Flash or something playing high-definition video or a 3D game and you think, "Yeah but that can't just be a set of instructions." But that's exactly what these are, all of them.
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  1. 4m 14s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Making the most of this course
      2m 8s
    3. Using the exercise files
      50s
  2. 22m 11s
    1. What is programming?
      5m 45s
    2. What is a programming language?
      4m 48s
    3. Writing source code
      5m 34s
    4. Compiled and interpreted languages
      6m 4s
  3. 16m 29s
    1. Why JavaScript?
      4m 45s
    2. Creating your first program in JavaScript
      6m 54s
    3. Requesting input
      4m 50s
  4. 31m 38s
    1. Introduction to variables and data types
      5m 16s
    2. Understanding strong, weak, and duck-typed languages
      3m 51s
    3. Working with numbers
      5m 4s
    4. Using characters and strings
      4m 5s
    5. Working with operators
      4m 47s
    6. Properly using white space
      6m 46s
    7. Adding comments to code for human understanding
      1m 49s
  5. 24m 49s
    1. Building with the if statement
      7m 35s
    2. Working with complex conditions
      4m 10s
    3. Setting comparison operators
      6m 59s
    4. Using the switch statement
      6m 5s
  6. 17m 56s
    1. Breaking your code apart
      4m 1s
    2. Creating and calling functions
      2m 57s
    3. Setting parameters and arguments
      6m 7s
    4. Understanding variable scope
      2m 23s
    5. Splitting code into different files
      2m 28s
  7. 13m 32s
    1. Introduction to iteration
      4m 28s
    2. Writing a while statement
      5m 24s
    3. Creating a for loop
      3m 40s
  8. 19m 28s
    1. Cleaning up with string concatenation
      4m 30s
    2. Finding patterns in strings
      8m 3s
    3. Introduction to regular expressions
      6m 55s
  9. 19m 59s
    1. Working with arrays
      5m 47s
    2. Array behavior
      5m 29s
    3. Iterating through collections
      5m 18s
    4. Collections in other languages
      3m 25s
  10. 10m 50s
    1. Programming style
      5m 55s
    2. Writing pseudocode
      4m 55s
  11. 25m 55s
    1. Input/output and persistence
      3m 6s
    2. Reading and writing from the DOM
      8m 11s
    3. Event driven programming
      7m 47s
    4. Introduction to file I/O
      6m 51s
  12. 24m 26s
    1. Introduction to debugging
      5m 57s
    2. Tracing through a section of code
      7m 5s
    3. Understanding error messages
      3m 21s
    4. Using debuggers
      8m 3s
  13. 14m 17s
    1. Introduction to object-oriented languages
      5m 18s
    2. Using classes and objects
      6m 29s
    3. Reviewing object-oriented languages
      2m 30s
  14. 11m 14s
    1. Memory management across languages
      5m 11s
    2. Introduction to algorithms
      4m 2s
    3. Introduction to multithreading
      2m 1s
  15. 29m 20s
    1. Introduction to languages
      1m 42s
    2. C-based languages
      4m 40s
    3. The Java world
      3m 13s
    4. .NET languages: C# and Visual Basic .NET
      6m 17s
    5. Ruby
      3m 4s
    6. Python
      2m 56s
    7. Objective-C
      4m 3s
    8. Libraries and frameworks
      3m 25s
  16. 1m 2s
    1. Where to go from here
      1m 2s

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Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals
4h 47m Beginner Sep 22, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

This course provides the core knowledge to begin programming in any language. Simon Allardice uses JavaScript to explore the core syntax of a programming language, and shows how to write and execute your first application and understand what's going on under the hood. The course covers creating small programs to explore conditions, loops, variables, and expressions; working with different kinds of data and seeing how they affect memory; writing modular code; and how to debug, all using different approaches to constructing software applications.

Finally, the course compares how code is written in several different languages, the libraries and frameworks that have grown around them, and the reasons to choose each one.

Topics include:
  • Writing source code
  • Understanding compiled and interpreted languages
  • Requesting input
  • Working with numbers, characters, strings, and operators
  • Writing conditional code
  • Making the code modular
  • Writing loops
  • Finding patterns in strings
  • Working with arrays and collections
  • Adopting a programming style
  • Reading and writing to various locations
  • Debugging
  • Managing memory usage
  • Learning about other languages
Subjects:
Developer Web Programming Foundations
Author:
Simon Allardice

What is programming?

So what exactly is programming? Well, you may have heard a phrase like this before. A computer program is a set of instructions. Here is the problem. This sounds like one of those phrases that might be technically true and is kind of useless, like the human brain is 80% water. Because you hear this phrase but then you see a complex program like Photoshop or Flash or something playing high-definition video or a 3D game and you think, "Yeah but that can't just be a set of instructions." But that's exactly what these are, all of them.

Every computer program is a series of instructions. A sequence of separate small commands, one after the other. Now there maybe five instructions contained in a program, maybe 5,000, maybe 5 million. Each instruction is telling the computer to do something very small, but very specific and the art of programming is to take a larger idea and break it apart into these individual steps. And the wonderful thing is everyone can already do this. Let's imagine that you're sitting in your house in the suburbs waiting for a visit from a friend.

Your phone rings, it's her, and she's asking for directions. She tells you she's at a nearby gas station and you know it. You pass it everyday, it's on your way home. So that journey point A to point B drops into your head as one piece, but you instantly know you can't communicate the journey the way you understand it. You have to break it down into simpler parts and you have to think about it to break it down because it's so natural to you. So you start to pull this apart and "You say you are going to need to turn right, then drive one mile, then you will turn left on Acacia Avenue, then you'll take the second right and then it's the fourth house on the left." Specific, individual, simple, clear, self-contained instructions.

Now you know that sequence here is vitally important. You mix these up, you will get very different results. "Turn right, drive 1 mile" takes you to quite a different place from "drive 1 mile, turn right." But this same level of simple instructions, turn right, turn left, go straight, could take you around the corner or it could take you on a five-year trip around the world visiting every Starbucks along the way. You'd still have instructions like turn right and left.

You'd just need a lot more of them. So with programming we are giving directions to the computer. It's breaking apart a more complex idea, a more complex task, into its smallest individual instructions and then using a programming language to write those instructions. Now, of course if you have never programmed, it's not clear right now what those instructions might be. You know it's probably not turn right and turn left. So what are those basic fundamental instruction you give a computer? Well, they are often very basic. They are things like add two numbers together, or display a letter on the screen, check to see if the user just hit the spacebar, change the color of one individual pixel. But as with driving directions, you string together enough computer instructions that will get you very far indeed.

So when it might seem difficult to see how you get from basic examples you see when beginning programming to complex games or applications, well that's what you get when you have a hundred people writing these instructions for sixty hours a week for several years, combined with the ability of the computer to process them mind-bogglingly fast, means that we could, if we wanted to, write the set of instructions that could calculate every single individual pixel on the screen thirty times a second.

Now think about that level of speed and think about why your instructions better be right. Because getting them wrong is like giving wrong directions to your friend when her car only has two speeds: 0 and 5000 miles an hour. You get those directions wrong, and the next call you get is her asking why she followed your instructions to the letter, but her car is now in the middle of a forest crashed into a tree. Computers will do exactly what you tell them, so the instructions you give them better make sense.

In programming languages we write these instructions by writing what are called statements. Statements in programming languages are kind of like sentences in English. They use words, numbers, and punctuation to express one thought, one individual piece. Most programming statements are pretty short, just a few words. Now, exactly what words, numbers, and punctuation you use depends on the programming language. Some languages want each of your statements to end with a semicolon, like ending a sentence in English with a period, and others don't. You just go to the next line and start writing the next statement.

Some languages are all uppercase, some languages are all lowercase, some languages just don't care. Now, understanding the rules of each language is understanding the syntax of a programming language. So programming is the ability to take this idea in your head, break it apart into its individual pieces, and know how to write those pieces in the programming language you are using at the time, writing your statements in the right order, using the right syntax. But what language? Well, sometimes you get to pick a language and sometimes it's kind of picked for you.

We will talk about that in a moment.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Foundations of Programming: Fundamentals.


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Q: Using TextEdit with Mac OS 10.9 Mavericks? 
A: If you're using the built-in TextEdit program in Mavericks to write your first examples and your code doesn't seem to be working, here's one reason why: by default, "smart quotes" are now turned on in TextEdit Preferences.
 
This is where TextEdit will automatically change pairs of double quotes to "smart quotes" - where the opening and closing quote are different, like a 66 and 99.
 
While this is fine for human eyes, programming languages don't want this - when writing code, they need to be the plain, generic straight-up-and-down quotes.
 
So make sure that in TextEdit > Preferences, that "Smart quotes" are unchecked.
 
Important! Whenever you make a change to TextEdit preferences, make sure to then completely quit out of the program (Command-Q or using TextEdit > Quit TextEdit) and then re-open it, as changes won't take effect on documents you already have open.
 
However, we're not finished - just because you've changed the preferences, it does **not** change any *existing* smart quotes back to "regular" quotes - it just doesn't add new ones - so make sure to go through your files for any time you wrote quotes and TextEdit may have changed them to smart quotes - look in both the JavaScript, and your HTML too, and compare to the downloadable exercise files if necessary.
 
If that sounds like a bit of a chore, I recommend just downloading a code editor like Sublime Text (www.sublimetext.com) or TextMate (www.macromates.com) and using that instead of TextEdit - it's only a matter of time before you'd move away from TextEdit anyway - we only used it in the course because it was built-in and a quick way to get started, but it's now become more of a inconvenience than it was before.
 
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