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There have been hundreds of programming languages since the start of computing. But at any given time there are perhaps a dozen or so that are popular and by popular I simply mean that language is used in a lot of current software, it's used by large numbers of people, and there is an active community and a significant job market for that language. Now as the years go by, different languages wax and wane in popularity. New languages do come along. Some are big hit but most of them aren't. So this list changes, but it changes slowly. Now most programmers will learn and use many languages over the course of their career. Once you have got the basics down, additional languages do become easier to pick up. A little later in this course we will dive deeper into the most popular languages, but if you're new to this, you might think why, why are there so many languages? If all we're doing is writing simple instructions for computer, why isn't there just one computer language? Well actually that language does exist, but it isn't any of these. You see the CPU, the chip, the central processing unit that is the brain of any computer, desktop, laptop, server, phone, game console, well it doesn't understand any of these languages. We might informally say when we are programming that we're writing code the computer understands, but we are not. Not really. You see the only thing that chip understands his called machine code or machine language. Now these are the real instructions that run directly on your computer hardware. So the question is why don't we just write machine code? Well because it's almost impossible to do. It's numerical operations, tiny instructions that work on the smallest pieces of memory inside your computer and even if you could write it, it's basically unreadable by anybody else. This is for the machine. It's not for a human being. And because machine code works of the level of the CPU, it would be different machine code for different models of CPU. Writing a full program in machine code would be like digging a tunnel through a mountain with only teaspoons. It's theoretically possible, but it would take you so long and so tedious that you wouldn't even try. So all of these languages, the popular ones and the others, are in fact a compromise. They are invented languages. They are just trying to bridge the gap between us as human beings and the computer hardware. Now, some of the languages are actually quite close to machine code. The closest is something known as assembly language. In general the closer a language is to machine code the more difficult it is to write and the more you have to know about the actual hardware. And this what's called a low-level language. Now as you move away from the CPU into what are called higher-level languages you worry less about the hardware. Now this code is often easier to write and to share even across different platforms, but it can be slower when running because these languages aren't necessarily optimized directly down to the CPU level. Having said that, these days speed differences are minimal and we will be focusing on the high-level languages in this course. But whatever we write has to be converted down to machine code before it can run. So while this machine code piece seems like the most important piece, we are not really interested in machine code. Sure we do need to know that that's what runs, but programming for us is all about the source code. That's what we call the statements we write, Java, C++, Ruby, Python whenever. We write the source code that will at some point be translated then into machine code, so it can run on the computer. When I say I'm writing code, it's source code, and when I say programming or I am coding, I mean the same thing. So to start writing any of these programming languages, writing these statements, writing our source code, we need to understand three things: 1) how to write it, literally where do we actually start typing this, 2) to understand how that source code will be converted to machine code, and 3) how do we actually run it, how do we execute our program? And some of this does depend on the language that we pick, but let's begin with how to actually start writing these statements.
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